Level 3


unit 1

A Conversation about Hobbies

Helena: How are you, Victor?

Victor: I’m good Helena. How are you?

Helena: I’m excited for summer break.

Victor: I am, too!

Helena: Are you doing anything fun this summer?

Victor: Yes, I am. I’m going on a cruise for a week.

Helena: Really? Who are you going with?

Victor: My family. We always go on vacation together.

Helena: Do you like to do things with your family?

Victor: Oh, yes. My family and I have very similar hobbies, and we love to spend time together.

Helena: What kinds of activities do you normally do with your family?

Victor: We love swimming, hiking, camping, biking, and any other outdoor activities. We love to be in nature.

Helena: Wow, that’s incredible. Your family sounds like a lot of fun. Are there any hobbies you have that are different than your family’s?

Victor: Yes. I usually play video games at night. My sister doesn’t like video games. She never plays with me.

Helena: What does she like to do at night?

Victor: At night, she always listens to music and practices dance moves. I don’t like to dance.

Helena: Ok. What about your parents?

Victor: Their favorite hobby is cooking together. They often make delicious dinners for my sister and me. I don’t like to cook, but I love to eat. What about you Helena? What do you like to do for fun?

Helena: I love photography. I love taking pictures of people and finding beauty in the world.

Victor: Do you and your family spend time together outdoors?

Helena: I rarely do outdoor activities unless it’s to take pictures, and my family likes to stay inside. During the summer, we go to the pool once a month. We like to watch TV and go to the movies together. We go to the movies every two weeks.

Victor: That sounds like fun. Do you have any big plans for the summer?

Helena: I’m planning on signing up for a photography course at the community college.

Victor: Really? That’s great.

Helena: Yeah. It’s not as exciting as a cruise, but there will be a surprise guest coming to talk to the students and answer questions. I’m hoping it’s Anne Gedes. She’s one of my favorite photographers.

Victor: I hope it’s her, too. It would be an incredible experience.

Helena: I agree. Are you planning on taking a lot of pictures on your cruise?

Victor: Yes, I am.

Helena: I can’t wait to see them!

Victor: They probably won’t be as good as yours.

Helena: That’s ok.

Interview with a Professional Skydiver

Interviewer: I’m here today with Jonathan Price. Mr. Price is a professional skydiver, and he’s here to tell us a little about what he does. Mr. Price, how long have you been skydiving?

Jonathan: Jonathan, please. I have been skydiving for 10 years. I started when I was 18 years old as a hobby before I became a professional.

Interviewer: Does a professional skydiver get paid to jump out of planes?

Jonathan: Not always. Some of them do. I have friends who are part of diving teams, and they get paid to jump. I am a videographer. I get paid to record as I jump out of the aircraft.

Interviewer: What do you normally record?

Jonathan: Usually, I record tandem jumps. That’s when there are two skydivers attached. People jumping for the first time must jump with a professional. They often want a video of the experience. That’s where I come in.

Interviewer: It sounds dangerous.

Jonathan: It can be, but I’ve had a lot of practice.

Interviewer: Is videography another hobby?

Jonathan: Yes. Growing up, I always loved recording everything. My parents bought me a video camera for my 10th birthday. Then, at 18, they took me skydiving for the first time. The experience was so incredible, and the view was breathtaking. I continued to do both hobbies separately until I learned that I could record while skydiving and get paid for it.

Interviewer: Are those your only two hobbies now?

Jonathan: No, not at all. Now that it’s my job, I find myself doing other activities in my free time.

Interviewer: Can you tell us what those activities are?

Jonathan: Sure. I love reading and relaxing by the beach.

Interviewer: Those are calm activities in comparison to your job.

Jonathan: Yes. I love adventure, but I also need ways to relax.

Interviewer: What are your plans now?

Jonathan: I’m visiting my mom and traveling. I’m hoping to find somewhere new to visit, too.

Interviewer: I hope you find it soon. Thank you so much for talking to us today, Jonathan.

Jonathan: You’re welcome.

  1. blue
  2. break
  3. cry
  4. ski
  5. twelve
  6. snow
  7. store
  8. last
  9. mask
  10. gold
  11. find
  12. thank
  13. scratch
  14. splash
  15. strange
  16. throat
  17. blast
  18. fried
  19. swimming
  20. playing

Exercise 20 Part A

  1. terrible flight
  2. pay here
  3. estate laws
  4. sock market
  5. split up

Exercise 20 Part B

  1. She got a car on her birthday.
  2. The book is based on a historical event.
  3. The police will fine him.
  4. I backed up all of my files.
  5. Rogelio and his brother were at Google.

Exercise 22

  1. I can hear the wind below.
  2. That is a rough support.
  3. Did you see my new plants?
  4. I work on Saturday.
  5. People go skiing in the winter.

unit 2

Talking about a holiday tradition with food

Adriana: Hey Juliette. Did you start on your project for class?

Juliette: Hey Adriana. I’m still working on it, but I’m confused about what we have to do.

Adriana: I am, too. Let’s ask Ajani and Inessa. They always know what to do.

Juliette: Ok, good idea. Hey Ajani. Do you know what we have to do for the project due next week?

Ajani: Yes. We have to give a presentation on a holiday food tradition from our home country.

Adriana: Ok, that shouldn’t be too difficult. Did you finish yours already?

Ajani: No, but Inessa says she is almost finished. We can ask her for advice on how to start.

Juliette: Hey Inessa, can you help us get ideas for the presentation that’s due next week?

Inessa: Of course. Since it’s close to Christmas, I thought it would be good to talk about a traditional food made during Christmas and why it’s important.

Adriana: That’s perfect. What food did your family make during the holidays in Russia?

Inessa: My family made Shuba in January for Christmas. We celebrate Christmas in January, not December. You make Shuba using pickled herring, which is a popular fish in my country. Then you add hard-boiled eggs, mayonnaise, carrots, beets, potatoes, and onions. My mother always lets me help with the vegetables. I loved watching her cook during the holidays.

Ajani: Why was that the traditional food for the holidays?

Inessa: Shuba symbolizes national unity, and the letters represent anti-chauvinism, which means extreme patriotism. The fish represents the poor people, the beets are red and represent the revolution. The potatoes represent the farmers. We all come together.

Juliette: That’s beautiful. Now, I know what holiday food I want to do my presentation on.

Adriana: What is it?

Juliette: When I was in France, during Christmas, we always had Buche de Noel. This is my favorite holiday food tradition. I was a very active child. I always got in trouble because I couldn’t stay still. My mother wanted to teach me how to cook, but it wasn’t easy to teach me. I made a mess with everything. I didn’t listen to instructions, so she almost gave up. One Christmas, she decided to let me help her make the Buche de Noel. It’s the most important dessert for us during the holiday. I was excited because I love eating it. I actually paid attention and tried my best to do everything right. She let me be in control, too. When it was finished baking, we decorated it together. It looked horrible. It didn’t look like the perfect log that my mother makes. I was sad, but my father and the rest of my family all said it was the best Buche de Noel they had ever tasted. Then, my father told me why we make it at Christmas time.

Ajani: What did he say?

Juliette: They make this because in France, they used to burn a special log, called a Yule Log, on Christmas Day. Everyone had fireplaces before. When fireplaces were less common, a baker decided to bake a log to represent the Yule Log. It was for families to be together.

Adriana: What about you Ajani? Do you have a special holiday meal you want to present?

Ajani: Yes, I do. I am going to talk about Yebeg Wot. This is a traditional Ethiopian stew that we prepare for Christmas. I have the best memories of this food. It takes time to make it because we use lamb. My family had a farm in Ethiopia. We had to prepare for weeks because we needed the lamb to be fat. We started feeding our lamb a high calorie diet right at the beginning of December. This way, the lamb meat would be full of fat and tender. My parents always let me feed the lamb, but they never let me see them kill it. After the meat was ready, we added onions, garlic, kibbeh, which is an Ethiopian butter, berbere spice, which is a special Ethiopian spice blend, and more spices. We love spices. We added all of this to the stew with the meat and ate it with some bread. Our family would come from so many different places to spend the holidays with us and eat Yebeg Wot. We shared all kinds of stories and played games together. For me, this tradition is the most important.

Inessa: It seems like everyone has a special tradition for Christmas. What about you Adriana? What did you decide to talk about?

Adriana: I’m going to talk about Spiced Hot Chocolate. In Peru, I loved our tradition called La Chocolatada. It’s like a hot chocolate festival that happens in the month of December. My grandmother made the best spiced hot chocolate. She used chocolate, condensed milk, cinnamon, clove, and a perfect amount of chili powder. I used to help her stir it all together with this big wooden spoon. She steamed it for hours to make all the flavors mix. She always made enough for 100 people or more. During La Chocolatada, families, churches, community groups, and even schools went around the neighborhood serving the poor the spiced hot chocolate and some sweet bread. This was my favorite part. It brought me a lot of joy to see the poor families enjoy the holidays. Sometimes, people gave toys to the children, too. I loved helping the community and sharing the true meaning of Christmas.

Juliette: Wow. That is a wonderful tradition.

Inessa: It looks like we are all ready for the presentation next week.

Ajani: All this talk of food made me miss my family.

Adriana: Yes, it did.

Juliette: It also made me hungry for all the great food you described!

Inessa: We should have a potluck, where we each bring our holiday food to share with each other.

Ajani: I like that idea.

Adriana and Juliette: Me too!

PowerPoint 2.2

Weird foods around the world

[Slide 1] Today, I’m going to tell you about the interesting food I saw when I was traveling around the world. I didn’t try all of these foods, but I did learn a lot about them.

[Slide 2] When my wife and I were staying in Israel a few years ago, we started to notice a snack that was sold in a lot of street markets. After a few days of sightseeing, we decided to walk in the smaller towns. While we were walking, we saw something strange in one of the booths. My wife couldn’t believe her eyes. It was a big, fat locust. Now, we normally think of locust as a pest, but here it was deep fried and covered in chocolate. We thought we were imagining it. The man told us that they are healthy and kosher. Plus, locust swarms are common in Israel, so they take advantage of that. I decided to try the chocolate-covered locust. It was actually not a bad flavor. My wife refused to try it.

[Slide 3] Another interesting food choice I came across was century eggs in China. My job took me to China for a few months. I had a friend who told me he tried these eggs. I had never heard of them before. Century eggs are duck, chicken, or quail eggs that are buried in a mixture of clay, ash, and salt. They stay buried for months. The yolk on the inside eventually turns dark green or gray, while the clear part is a dark brown or black color. I never tried the century eggs, so I don’t know what they taste like. My friend said they were smooth and creamy. Apparently, this delicacy has been around for many years in China. It started out because people needed a way to preserve eggs for a longer amount of time. Today, it is served as an appetizer at many restaurants in China.

[Slide 4] Another addition to this list is jellied moose nose in Canada. Jellied moose nose is another one that has been around for centuries. In the 1800s, when tribes hunted for food, they hunted moose. When they killed a moose, they used every part of the animal to make sure nothing was wasted. The women removed the hairs from the nose. They boiled the nose in water and cleaned it more. Then, they boiled it again. Once they were sure that it was clear of hair, they covered the nose with broth. The broth would turn to a jelly, and that is how they created jellied moose nose. In the past, it was a need for survival, but today, it is considered a delicacy in Canada. I hope to visit Canada one day and try one.

[Slide 5] During an anniversary trip to Italy, my wife and I were visiting Sardinia because we heard about illegal cheese. I wanted to get more information from the locals. We learned about Casu Marzu, a cheese made from sheep’s milk, that has maggots. The maggots eat the cheese, digest it, and then release an acid that helps soften the cheese. That cheese is now illegal, but people used to eat it with maggots on bread. I think it’s a little crazy.

[Slide 6] The last food we discovered while traveling was fried tarantula in Cambodia. This popular snack started when starving Cambodians began to eat spiders. Now, they are eaten and sold as a snack. The tarantulas are fried and seasoned. Some people say they taste like crab. Unfortunately, I wasn’t able to purchase one to try it. However, a friend of mine who was visiting with me says he tried one before. He enjoys eating them, but he didn’t think they tasted like crab. He said it was hard to describe it, and I would have to try for myself. I hope to get the chance to try fried tarantula.

[Slide 7] There are so many interesting foods around the world that a lot of people don’t know about. What are some strange foods that you think people should know about?

Exercise 24 Minimal Pairs

  1. bill/pill
    1. Here’s your pill.
    2. Here’s your bill.
  2. cab/cap
    1. Is this your cab?
    2. Is this your cap?
  3. fan/van
    1. This is a black van.
    2. This is a black fan.
  4. fast/vast
    1. The boat is fast.
    2. The boat is vast.
  5. chin/shin
    1. He got a cut on his shin.
    2. He got a cut on his chin.
  6. watch/wash
    1. Are you going to watch the dog?
    2. Are you going to wash the dog?
  7. price/prize
    1. What is the price?
    2. What is the prize?
  8. sip/zip
    1. Did you zip it?
    2. Did you sip it?

unit 3

A Presentation on Work Life

“Good morning. My name is Natalie Harrington. Today, I want to talk about finding a good job. First, I’ll describe the qualities you should look for in a job. Then, we’ll discuss why these qualities are important and how they can affect your overall work-life balance. First, we’ll talk about salary, or how much you get paid. Second, the working hours of the job. Finally, we’ll discuss the benefits the company offers, such as sick pay and retirement plans.

 Most people who are looking for work only consider how much money they can earn. While this is a good starting point, it isn’t always the most important. Minimum wage is the lowest amount an employer can legally pay someone to work for them. However, not every job should be paid at the lowest amount. Remember, the more experience needed, the higher the salary should be. For example, an entry level job, such as a cashier, will normally pay minimum wage. You can compare this to the starting wage of the store manager. A store manager often requires years of experience in the field. This means that they will receive a higher salary. You decide if the work is worth the pay.

Next, consider the working hours of a job. Working hours can be your expected start and end times or just your overall worked hours. Some companies have set work schedules. This means they require you to be at the office or start your shift at a specified time and finish your work by a certain time at the end of the day on specific days. Other companies may have more flexibility with working hours. You may only need to reach a certain number of hours in the week and complete a certain amount of work within those hours. This means you don’t have to clock in or out. Make sure that the working hours of a job match your availability.

In addition to pay and scheduling, look at the benefits the company offers. Not all companies offer benefits, and not all benefits are equal. Some benefits to look for are health insurance, sick leave, paid time off, and retirement plans. Check to see if the health insurance cost is reasonable. Find out whether the company offers paid leave if you or a family member gets sick. Do they give you vacation time and will the company pay for it? It’s also important to check if you can save for your future, and some companies will help you with a retirement plan.

To finish, remember that work-life balance is important in succeeding at a job and in your own personal life. Each quality of a job affects work-life balance. If you are working long hours with low pay, you may never achieve that balance. A company that offers paid time off values the importance of work-life balance. This gives you the opportunity to spend time with loved ones, while being financially responsible. Remember, it’s not always about the money. Thank you for your time. Are there any questions?

Exercise 14

  1. Welcome, today’s presentation will be given by Dr. Robert Stevenson who is the leading expert on stress and chronic illness.
  2. I am calling to make a hair appointment on Tuesday. Please give me a call back at 801-999-1212.
  3. Take a left at the corner and then go straight past the pharmacy. The store’s address is 122 Cherry Lane. You will see it right next to an ice cream shop.
  4. The trip will be on September 6th and we will be gone for 3 days. You will need to bring food, water, a tent, and other camping supplies.
  5. Thank you for calling Mike’s Business Consulting. The office is closed now but will reopen on January 4th at 8am.

An Interview

Rebecca: Hi, my name is Rebecca Pierce. I’m the manager. It’s nice to meet you.

Andrew: Nice to meet you, Ms. Pierce. My name is Andrew Martinez.

Rebecca: Ok, Mr. Martinez, tell me a little bit about yourself.

Andrew: Well, I grew up in Bolivia and studied Architecture. I worked at an architectural company for 10 years. I created blueprints for several structures over the years. After a few years with the company, I was put in charge of a small team. We managed to complete many projects with hard work and attention to detail. Then, I came to the United States because I believe it will help my career goals.

Rebecca: That’s great. This position is for a Senior Architectural Associate. What strengths or skills do you possess that would help you succeed in this position?

Andrew: My biggest strength is my organizational skills. This skill has helped me in my career. I also work well under pressure and with minimal supervision. I work through problems as they come up and create solutions that are both efficient and effective.

Rebecca: Excellent. What would you say are some of your weaknesses?

Andrew: A weakness I have is communicating that I need help. I am really working to be better at this.

Rebecca: Thank you for being honest. What goals do you have for the next few years?

Andrew: My main goal is to gain more work experience in my field. This position would help me reach that goal. Another goal is to increase my knowledge of the business side of architecture.

Rebecca: Those are excellent goals. I’d like to ask you what salary you are looking for currently.

Andrew: I’m looking to start somewhere between $80,000 and $85,000 a year based on my experience and education.

Rebecca: Mr. Martinez, thank you for your time. Those are all the questions I have for you today. Do you have any questions for me?

Andrew: Yes. Could you tell me what the working hours are for this position?

Rebecca: Of course. This position is from eight to four Monday through Friday with some occasional overtime required.

Andrew: Great. What benefits does your company offer?

Rebecca: Our company offers full health insurance coverage after 90 days.

Andrew: Can you explain what that means?

Rebecca: Yes. It means the company fully pays for your health insurance. We also offer 2 weeks of paid time off, or PTO, after 90 days.

Andrew: Ok, thank you for explaining. Do you have a retirement plan option for your employees?

Rebecca: Yes, we do. You will be enrolled into a 401K where we match any contributions you make.

Andrew: Can you explain what you mean by that?

Rebecca: Of course. Employees can pay money into their retirement plan at any time in any amount. If you decide to pay $200 into the account, we will add another $200. Every time you make a payment, we will match it.

Andrew: Wonderful. I have one last question. How does your company value a good work-life balance?

Rebecca: That is a great question. We certainly understand that work is not the only part of your life. We do expect our employees to be dedicated and work hard, but we don’t want to take too much away from your life outside of the office. We try to make sure work is done at work. We also want our employees to understand there are times where we may need to work extra hours to complete a project before the deadline and that may throw off the balance. That’s why we offer PTO, to help promote a good balance. Does that answer your question?

Andrew: Yes, thank you.

Rebecca: Ok, great. We will make a decision in a week and give you a call. Do you have any final questions?

Andrew: Not at this time, thank you.

Rebecca: Feel free to give me a call if you have any more questions later. It was a pleasure to meet you, Mr. Martinez.

Andrew: Thank you. It was a pleasure meeting you as well. I look forward to hearing from you.

18 – Listening for Mistakes

  1. I worked from home last year.
  2. Have you apply for the job yet?
  3. He write for a newspaper.
  4. Susan watches TV every night.
  5. A tutor edit my paper.
  6. Mike dream of having a better job

Exercise 19 – ed Endings

  1. argued. I argued with my coworker. argued.
  2. started. I started a new job last week. started.
  3. sharedShe shared lunch with me. shared.
  4. askedMy boss asked me to come in early. asked.
  5. avoidedWe avoided the busy roads. avoided.
  6. listenedI listened to the training video. listened.
  7. finishedI finished work early yesterday. finished.
  8. touched.He touched the hot stove. touched.
  9. cheatedShe cheated on the test. cheated.
  10. lived.I lived in California for two years. lived.

Exercise 21 –s Endings

  1. helps. Samantha helps people at work. helps.
  2. createsHe creates budgets at work. creates.
  3. fixesHe fixes computers for a living. fixes.
  4. givesMy husband gives me flowers every month. gives.
  5. knowsShe knows my boss. knows.
  6. churchesThere are a lot of churches in this city. churches.
  7. cliffsShe studied birds on the cliffs last week. cliffs.
  8. plumsIt is a perfect time to pick plums. plums.
  9. freezesIn winter, everything freezes. freezes.
  10. booksThe librarian helps me find books. books.

unit 4

A Conversation on Travel Plans

Jen: Hi, Mia. What are you doing?

Mia: Hey Jen. I’m getting ready to go on vacation.

Jen: Oh, where are you going?

Mia: I’m going to Spain to visit my grandparents.

Jen: Really? Is your family from Spain?

Mia: My father’s family is from Spain. My mother’s family is from Peru. I usually visit Peru during the summer, but this year, I’m going to Spain.

Jen: How exciting. When are you leaving?

Mia: I’m leaving on Saturday in the early morning. My plane leaves at 6:00 AM!

Jen: Wow, that is early. How long are you going to be in Spain?

Mia: I will be there for one month.

Jen: Are you excited?

Mia: Yes, but I’m also a little nervous. I’ve never been to Europe, and I’ve only met my dad’s family once before! Also, flying is the worst form of travel.

Jen: Why do you say that?

Mia: Well, if the weather is bad, there is a lot of turbulence.

Jen: Oh, you mean when the wind causes the plane to shake?

Mia: Yes. I’m always afraid that something bad will happen.

Jen: Planes are safer than driving. You’re only afraid because of your risk perception.

Mia: What do you mean by that?

Jen: Your perception is how you see something. You think flying is more dangerous because if there is a problem more people can die at one time. Car accidents are more common, but fewer people are affected. There are more car accidents than plane accidents, but plane accidents are sensationalized, meaning the information is presented to make people pay attention to it more. Driving makes you feel more in control and that can affect your perception of the risk.

Mia: You may be right, but it’s still scary!

Jen: I’m sure everything will be fine. You shouldn’t be scared. What are you going to do in Spain?

Mia: We’ll probably visit a few famous places. There are a few I’m really looking forward to visiting.

Jen: Which ones?

Mia: I think we will visit the Sagrada Familia. I really want to go to Plaza Mayor in Madrid. My grandmother also wants to take me to a bunch of museums because she knows I love them.

Jen: That sounds like a lot of fun. Are you planning on doing anything else while you’re there?

Mia: Oh, yes. I also want to relax and get to know my grandparents.

Jen: What do you like to do to relax?

Mia: I prefer being outdoors. I like to hike, walk in the park, and swim.

Jen: I hear the beaches in Spain are beautiful.

Mia: Oh yes. I am going to go to the beach as much as I can.

Jen: You have to take lots of pictures to show me when you get back.

Mia: I will definitely take lots of pictures.

Jen: Will you bring me back a souvenir?

Mia: Sure. What kinds of souvenirs do you like?

Jen: I like coffee mugs or fridge magnets. I don’t like postcards.

Mia: Why don’t you like postcards?

Jen: They can rip easily or get lost, so I would rather get something else.

Mia: I will look for a good souvenir for you.

Jen: Thank you.

Mia: No problem. Are you going to do anything fun this summer?

Jen: Yeah. I’m going to enroll in a cooking class tomorrow.

Mia: Really? That sounds like fun.

Jen: Not as fun as Spain, but I’m excited.

Mia: I’m sure it will be great.

A Debate on Preferred Travel Methods

Carol: Good afternoon and welcome back to our program. Today, we will talk about different travel methods. Our guest speakers are Martin, Hannah, and Nikki. Each of our speakers is going to talk about their preferred method of travel and why they feel it’s the best. Martin, you’re up first.

Martin: Thank you Carol, I’m very pleased to be here. Traveling is something I feel everyone should do. Whether it is within the area that you live, or you choose to visit a new country, traveling brings joy and wonder to our lives. I find that flying is the best way to travel. Now, there are many reasons for this, but the most important is that it gives you access to the whole world. There are no limits to where you can go with flying. Overseas, across the continent, or even in the same state. The other great part of flying is that you save a lot of time with travel. Flying from one end of the country to the other takes a few short hours instead of days or weeks. Planes are comfortable and fun. You can sleep, or you can watch a movie while you wait. I think flying is the best choice for travel.

Carol: Thanks Martin. Hannah?

Hannah: Thank you Carol. I agree with Martin that traveling is important for many reasons. Traveling allows us to gain knowledge and cultural experiences that help us grow as people. However, I would rather not fly and I don’t think it is the best method of travel. While I can agree that flying gives us some benefits, it takes away from the travel experience in some very important ways. For me, driving is the best way to travel. One reason is that you get to choose the places you stop and visit. Driving gives you control over the experiences you encounter. There are so many wonderful places along the way from one city to the next. Road trips are more flexible, and you won’t miss out on the cultural experiences of each place you pass through. Another benefit is the privacy you gain from traveling with only the people you want to be around. Not to mention, driving is a more affordable travel option.

Carol: Excellent points Hannah. Ok, Nikki. What are your thoughts?

Nikki: Well Carol, I think both Martin and Hannah offer great reasons why flying or driving are excellent travel options. I also agree with their opinion that traveling is essential to our growth. Even though they both presented amazing points, I must disagree with either option being the best. Traveling by train is the perfect option for everyone. The benefits that flying and driving offer are even better with trains. Trains balance out time and flexibility. Trains make stops in lots of cities and that can give you the chance to experience the culture before your final destination while still cutting down on the amount of time spent stopping for the restroom or gas. Trains are comfortable and allow you to walk around instead of sitting for endless hours. If you are traveling with your family and have kids, trains make the journey affordable and less stressful. If you’re traveling alone and don’t like the person or people you’re around, all you have to do is find a new seat. There are no reserved seats like on a plane. Another reason I prefer trains for traveling is the availability to relax or work. Since you aren’t driving, you can use your cell phone or even a laptop. Since you aren’t in the air, you don’t need to have airplane mode on at all. Trains are so versatile; they make traveling convenient and enjoyable.

Carol: Nikki, thank you for your insight. Our guests have given us excellent insight on different traveling methods. What do you think is the best way to travel?

Exercise 22

  1. Have you lived here for a long time?
  2. When did you arrive?
  3. I’ll be back in a minute.
  4. Did you visit your friends last month?
  5. Write your name here.

4.4: Exercise 23

  1. She doesn’t live here anymore.
  2. Dad wants to buy a new car.
  3. There will be cloudy weather this weekend.
  4. Leave it on the desk.
  5. Put your book on the table.
  6. I’ll be back in a minute.

4.5: Exercise 24

  1. I like football, tennis, basketball, and volleyball.
  2. I bought a T-shirt, a skirt, and a purse.
  3. I am going to travel to Italy, Greece, and France.
  4. Does he speak German or French?
  5. Do you want to go to Mexico or Costa Rica?

unit 5

A discussion between teacher and students

Teacher: Ok, everyone. Today we are going to discuss endangered species. Before we start, let’s go over the different levels of conservation.

Student 1: What is conservation?

Teacher: It’s when you try to preserve or protect something. There are animals that need our protection, or we risk losing them.

Student 2: What are the different levels of conservation?

Teacher: Great question. According to National Geographic, there are 7 levels of conservation. They are, Least Concern, Near Threatened, Vulnerable, Endangered, Critically Endangered, Extinct in the Wild, and Extinct. Normally, we talk about threatened and endangered species.

Student 3: What is the difference between threatened and endangered species?

Student 4: I think threatened means if we don’t do something to help that species soon, then it will become endangered soon. Endangered means there is already a big problem and if we don’t help, the species will become extinct.

Teacher: Excellent job, that is the difference between the two.

Student 5: Extinct means it doesn’t exist anymore, right?

Teacher: Yes, that is correct.

Student 6: How do we know if a species is endangered?

Teacher: There are a few ways to know if a species is endangered. An animal is marked as endangered due to a high loss of numbers over the years, continued decline in numbers, and the loss of habitat locations.

Student 1: In other words, there is a low number of that species and continue to be fewer of them, and they have fewer places to live. Is that right?

Teacher: Yes, exactly. Does anyone know what the top 5 endangered species are today?

Student 3: Is the Rhino one of them?

Teacher: Yes, it is.

Student 5: I think the Gorilla is also on the list now.

Teacher: Yes, you are correct.

Student 6: What other animals are on the list?

Teacher: Well, according to, the top 5 endangered species today are the Amur Leopard, the Rhinoceros, the Orangutan, the Gorilla, and the Saola.

Student 4: What’s causing these animals to become endangered?

Teacher: Some species are endangered as a result of overhunting. Another reason is loss of habitat. Human-animal conflict also affects a species level of conservation.

Student 6: It sounds like humans are causing a lot of the problems.

Teacher: It seems that way. The human population is increasing drastically. This results in expanding areas to live in, as well as the amount of food needed for everyone. Consequently, animals lose their lives and are hunted for food, sport, and monetary gain.

Student 3: Are there other causes that don’t involve humans?

Teacher: Yes. Other reasons that animals become endangered are rarity in the wild, low births, and disease. These are all natural causes that don’t directly involve humans.

Student 1: Can you explain rarity in the wild?

Teacher: Sure. It means that a species is already rare in nature. Their numbers were low to begin with, and they need very specific habitats to live in. This makes it difficult for them to increase their numbers or areas.

Student 5: Are there consequences to these animals being endangered or becoming extinct?

Teacher: Yes, absolutely. One effect is the loss of balance in nature. When one species becomes extinct, it causes the other species in that area to be affected. If a predator disappears, then the prey increases in numbers too much. They eat all the vegetation in the area and that causes more problems. On the other hand, when prey disappears, the predators don’t have enough food, or they start competing for the same food source and that species can become endangered.

Student 2: Basically, the more species become endangered and extinct, the more problems we have.

Teacher: Yes. There are even effects on human life because many people truly depend on wildlife to survive. There can even be an economic impact.

Student 6: I think the message is that we need to help the animals.

Student 3: I agree.

Teacher: I do, too.

PowerPoint 5.2

A Lecture on Environmental Problems

[Slide 1] Tonight, I’d like to talk about the cause and effect of environmental problems. Some of the problems are specific to certain regions, nations, or cultures. However, there are global issues that need our attention. Let me start with an overview of the issues that we should be concerned with.

[Slide 2] These include the Loss of Biodiversity, Overpopulation, and Ocean Acidification.

[Slide 3] First, let’s talk about the loss of biodiversity. What does loss of biodiversity mean?

[Slide 4] Loss of biodiversity has to do with the decrease in the variety of species that are on the Earth.

[Slide 5] What are some of the causes of biodiversity loss? According to John P. Rafferty, the environment plays a role in the increase or decrease of biodiversity. Warm weather allows different species to grow. In contrast, cold weather makes it difficult for insects and plants to live. This results in the loss of other species that feed on them. Rafferty also states that natural disasters can also stop the variety of species in an area. Similarly, humans can cause loss of biodiversity. For example, humans use land for homes and raising livestock. This causes the loss of habitats for many species.

[Slide 6] What are the effects of biodiversity loss? Humans depend on biodiversity for their natural resources. The World Health Organization, or WHO, stated, “Biodiversity loss can have [a big impact on human health] if ecosystem services are no longer [good enough] to meet social needs. Indirectly, changes in ecosystem services affect livelihoods, income, local migration and, on occasion, may even cause or [worsen] political conflict.” This means that the effects of biodiversity loss impact more than just the environment. It can affect our social lives, work lives, and even cause problems with international relations.

[Slide 7] The next issue is overpopulation. Why is our planet overpopulated?

[Slide 8] First, let’s define this term. Overpopulation means that there are too many people for the resources available in an area or planet.

[Slide 9] The reasons for overpopulation are complicated. The simplest reason is that there is an increase in the number of births each year. Approximately 385,000 babies are born every day. That number continues to grow. Another reason an area can be overpopulated is due to migration. People move to different states or countries and the area does not have the ability to support that growth.

[Slide 10] How does overpopulation affect the planet? That question has many answers. Problems with farming, loss of fresh water, and even global warming are some of the effects of an area, country, or planet becoming overpopulated.

[Slide 11] The third global issue we need to focus on is Ocean Acidification.

[Slide 12] So, what does that mean? An increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere results in the chemicals reaching ocean waters. This causes the ocean’s pH levels to decrease, making it more acidic.

[Slide 13] Well, what’s causing the levels in the ocean to change? To be honest, humans are responsible. Burning gases, oils, and petroleum is one of the main causes of ocean acidification. Deforestation, or cutting down trees, means there are fewer trees to take the carbon dioxide from the air and convert it to oxygen. As a result, there is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and this eventually reaches the ocean.

[Slide 14] Will ocean acidification cause problems in the near future? Yes. When the ocean’s pH levels are lower than normal, this results in the loss of ocean life. Consequently, other animal and plant life begins to be affected. Loss of ocean life will also affect the food supply for all people. When the ocean is too acidic, it will impact human health as well. All in all, the effects are devastating.

[Slide 15] Hopefully, you can see how these global environmental issues are connected to one another. If we don’t make changes now, there will be consequences that affect all life on Earth. It is important to act now and give future generations a chance of success. Otherwise, we risk losing our beloved planet.

Exercise 18

  1. Did you pick up the groceries?
  2. Where are the keys?
  3. Who are you calling?
  4. Does the store open at one?
  5. Can I borrow a dollar?
  6. How was the show?

Exercise 19

  1. Do your classmates live in Japan?
  2. Why did you leave?
  3. Where are the keys?
  4. Is this still available?
  5. Have you eaten today?
  6. Which one did you buy?

unit 6

Exercise 6

  1. Be a super star for a day! Sign up for the school talent show! Tryouts will be held next week after school. Make sure you hand in your permission form to sign up. So don’t delay!
  2. Halloween is held every October 31st. This is a very popular day for children. They get to dress up in costumes and go trick-or-treating around their neighborhood. Children should have their parents check their candy before eating it.
  3. The mouse could not find the cheese. He looked everywhere for it! He ran around and around. He even bumped into walls! After 2 hours of looking for his cheese, he finally found it, but now he was too tired to eat it!
  4. George Washington was the first president of the United States of America. George Washington was the only president that did not live in the White House. There were only 13 stars on the United States flag when Washington became President in 1789.
  5. California is the best state to live in. It has everything! There are beaches, forests, deserts, and mountains. The weather is great and there are so many things to do. Come and visit!
  6. There are three branches of government in the U.S. They are the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The branches of government were created to ensure a balance of power.
  7. Herbal tea is so good for you! Studies show that if you drink at least a cup of herbal tea a day, it can help with digestion and weight loss. Everyone should learn about and experience the benefits of herbal tea!
  8. Once upon a time, there was a girl named Alice. She followed a rabbit into a place called Wonderland. She had many silly and magical adventures to find her way back home.

A Debate on College Degrees

Gloria: Good afternoon, everyone. My name is Gloria, and this is my colleague, Benjamin. We are here today to debate the topic of college degrees. Is a college degree necessary to be successful in today’s world? My goal is to convince you that you need a college degree. College degrees are necessary for a good financial future.

Benjamin: I disagree with you Gloria. My goal is to explain why you don’t need a college degree to be successful.

Gloria: Let’s begin. More people are attending colleges and universities today than in the past. A degree gives you many benefits that cannot be achieved by simply having a high school diploma. One reason is that the job market is becoming more and more competitive. Imagine you are applying for a job. More than likely, 50 other people are applying for that same job. The manager will choose the person with more education. An applicant with a high school diploma will not be considered above the applicant with a bachelor’s degree. Having a degree gives you a better chance of standing out in the competition. Also, most jobs require more than a high school diploma now. What do you think Benjamin?

Benjamin: I agree that the job market has become very competitive. However, I disagree that a college degree is the best chance at helping you find a job. In fact, since more people are attending college and getting a degree, a bachelor’s degree is almost like having a high school degree. To stand out, you would need to have a master’s degree. That means more schooling, more money, and more time. You may get a good paying job after, but you will spend decades paying off the student loans. There are better ways to be successful. For example, you can opt to study a skill or a trade. Trade schools are normally less expensive, jobs are in higher demand, and you can earn your certificate in less time than a bachelor’s degree. This is the most logical choice.

Gloria: You make some great points, but I’m afraid I have to disagree. Certificates from trade schools can be beneficial, but they don’t offer the same benefits of a college degree. Certificates have limited career growth. You have a better chance at moving up in a company if you have a degree in your field. You mentioned that trade schools are less expensive than colleges and universities. That’s true. However, you failed to mention that trade schools usually don’t offer financial assistance, whereas universities have programs to help students. They can apply for government assistance or scholarships which decreases the overall cost. Anyone can benefit from a college degree.

Benjamin: I disagree. You don’t take into consideration students who are interested in the arts. Artists, musicians, dancers, and other nontraditional occupations don’t benefit from schooling. A degree doesn’t always help them find a job that pays well. Instead, they would benefit from perfecting their skill and becoming an entrepreneur or being self-employed.

Gloria: You’re right. Artists don’t always benefit from a degree in their field. Although, there are many courses an artist can take to help them perfect their art. There are highly qualified artists teaching at many schools that could mentor a student in their area.

Benjamin: That’s a good point. It’s safe to say that each person needs to decide the best plan for their lives. What do you want for your life? Is a college degree worth the time and money or can you reach your personal goals with something different?

Exercise 15

  1. I can’t believe it! How could she do that to me!
  2. It’s so good to see you! Come on in.
  3. I was so excited to go to the park, but now it’s raining and we can’t go.
  4. I tried to ask my teacher for help, but she was too busy and didn’t listen.
  5. I thought I heard a noise. Did you hear it?

Group Conversation on Remote Learning

Jasmine: Hi, Kevin. Hey, Margaret. How was your semester?

Kevin: Hey, Jasmine. Not bad. I’m glad it’s over.

Margaret: I feel the same way. This semester was hard for me. I’m ready for vacation. How about you Jasmine?

Jasmine: The semester was great for me, but I’m also ready for a break. Did you hear that the school is considering adding more remote learning to their programs?

Kevin: Really? That sounds like a good idea.

Margaret: It’s a terrible idea! Remote learning is difficult. There aren’t any good reasons to add more remote learning.

Jasmine: I disagree. Remote learning can be easy. Plus, there are many ways it’s helpful.

Kevin: Absolutely. I enjoyed taking courses online.

Margaret: How is it helpful?

Jasmine: For one, you are learning to use technology in new and different ways. You can increase your knowledge of different software programs, and you can even add that to your resume. Future employers will know that you have experience working with technology.

Kevin: That’s true. Plus, you can take class from anywhere. You can study at a school that’s in a different city or even a different country. You don’t have to leave your house, which means that you don’t have to worry about transportation. When I took online classes last year, I enjoyed staying home. I hated taking the bus early in the morning to get to my classes.

Margaret: I see what you mean, but I still think there are too many disadvantages to remote learning.

Kevin: What disadvantages?

Margaret: To start, you have to rely on perfect internet connection. If you have internet problems, or your power goes out, you can’t access your classes or assignments.

Jasmine: You make a good point.

Margaret: You said that it helps with technology, and while that may be true, it also makes it stressful. You have to keep up with all the different programs and platforms to watch videos, complete projects, submit assignments, and so much more. It makes you more dependent on teachers for help.

Jasmine: I’m not so sure about that. On the contrary, I believe it makes you more confident and autonomous. You need to motivate yourself and find solutions to problems on your own. Of course, you can always ask the teacher for help if you need it.

Margaret: I completely disagree. I also feel that remote learning takes away from social interactions. You don’t get the same benefits of meeting new people and interacting with others like in a classroom.

Kevin: Yes, I agree. I like remote learning, but it can be very lonely.

Jasmine: That’s partly true, but you can also gain access to people from all over the world. This can make some people feel more connected instead of lonely.

Margaret: I agree to a certain point. You can meet lots of new people from different places, but it’s not the same as being physically around others.

Kevin: Will remote learning be a requirement if they add more courses?

Jasmine: I don’t think so. I believe they will be optional. Remote learning isn’t for everyone. You definitely have to be self-motivated and good with technology to make it work. Some people learn better in a traditional classroom setting and some don’t.

Margaret: Now that, I can agree with! Let’s go get lunch.

Exercise 20

  1. paper
  2. bacon
  3. ugly
  4. begin
  5. tidy
  6. pilot
  7. appear
  8. basket
  9. provide
  10. happy

Exercise 21

  1. permit
  2. object
  3. desert
  4. contest
  5. insult

Exercise 22

  1. Will you give me a 25% discount?
  2. I promise not to discount your ideas.
  3. What was your favorite subject in school?
  4. Please do not subject me to that situation again.
  5. Will you convert to Catholicism?
  6. She is a convert to healthy eating.
  7. I did not record our conversation.
  8. Do you have a record of your birth?
  9. She will love that present.
  10. He will present his business plan to us.

unit 7

Conversation on Artificial Intelligence

Richard: Hey John. What are you doing?

John: Hey Richard. I’m reading a science fiction book.

Richard: Why do you like reading those books?

John: Because they make you think about life in a different way.

Richard: Ok. What’s the book about?

John: It’s about artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence has replaced most human interaction and the story explores that idea.

Richard: Wow, that sounds interesting. What do you think about artificial intelligence?

John: I believe artificial intelligence can be good and bad for people. It really depends on the kind of artificial intelligence.

Richard: What do you mean?

John: Think about self-driving cars. They are a form of artificial intelligence. This is beneficial for people because it helps us in many ways. There would be less accidents, less breaking of road safety rules, and long road trips wouldn’t be as bad.

Richard: Ok, that’s a good example. Give me an example of how it can be bad for us.

John: I think it could be bad since it can take away jobs from people.

Richard: I disagree with you. I think that Artificial Intelligence creates more jobs for people.

John: Explain how that’s true.

Richard: Well, the technology will need to be programmed, monitored, and improved. These are new skill sets that people will be able to learn. For this reason, they will be able to work in the field of technology. Sure, there are some jobs that could be lost to artificial intelligence, but I believe most of those jobs are better done by robots.

John: What jobs are better done by robots?

Richard: Military jobs could save time, money, energy, and lives if they are carried out by artificial intelligence robots rather than human soldiers. Looking for survivors after natural disasters would be faster and more lives can be saved. So, this makes artificial intelligence a good thing.

John: Ok, I see your point. Maybe some jobs are better with technology. However, I still think there are other negative aspects to artificial intelligence.

Richard: Why?

John: The human experience would be very different. We rely on technology a lot now. That can be dangerous for us because people will stop thinking for themselves and depend on technology for everything. It can affect how we interact with each other. We lose connections since there is too much artificial intelligence in our lives.

Richard: I don’t think that’s true. Technology connects us to different people all around the world. This gives us the ability to interact with different people from different cultures and backgrounds. I don’t think artificial intelligence would make us less connected.

John: Don’t take my word for it. Read the book and see if you still feel the same way.

Richard: Ok, I think I will.

A Conversation on Space Exploration

Carmen: Good morning, Professor Robertson.

Professor: Good morning, Carmen. What can I help you with?

Carmen: I was wondering if I could ask you some questions about the lecture you gave last week on space exploration.

Professor: Ok, sure. What questions do you have?

Carmen: Well, you gave us a lot of information, but we didn’t really discuss if we should be exploring space to begin with.

Professor: What are your thoughts?

Carmen: I’m not sure that we should be exploring space.

Professor: Why not?

Carmen: I feel like we should focus our energy on saving the planet that we live on now. Do you think space exploration is harmful to Earth?

Professor: I believe there can be consequences to the amount of fuel needed to power a rocket into space. One reason is that rocket fuel in the atmosphere is making our ozone layer thin. This is causing the Earth’s climate to change. The more rockets we send, the more fuel needed. The rockets that will be used aren’t able to take a lot of passengers. That means we will need a lot of rockets and a lot of fuel, which will continue to thin the ozone layer. When we look at the information this way, we could say that space exploration is harmful. Are the emissions from the rocket worth what we can learn from space?

Carmen: I don’t think they are. Think about the money and technology we develop for space. It’s harming our planet without any rewards. You stated in class that it costs around $900 million to launch one rocket. You also said that the average rocket needs about 11,000 pounds of fuel per second. That is a lot of money and fuel. What purpose does space exploration serve?

Professor: Space exploration has served us in many ways over the years and I believe it will continue to serve us greatly. Consider the knowledge we’ve gained about the world and how it works. We’ve been able to place satellites into space. Satellites have given us insight into what we didn’t know before. Scientists can look for problems in space and on Earth. It gives us better security. They also give us access to communication. Space exploration is necessary for these reasons and many more.

Carmen: Satellites create space junk, reflect the sun and cause problems. This space junk can enter the Earth’s atmosphere and that could cause damage to the planet. I still think we should focus our efforts on saving Earth. It’s the only home we have.

Professor: That may be true now, but space exploration could help us find a new home. Humanity will need to find a new home in the future. Don’t forget that Earth’s resources won’t last forever. Try to look for the positive side of space exploration.

Carmen: Ok, thank you Professor. I’ll give it some more thought. See you next week.

Exercise 20

  1. I bought a car on Tuesday.
  2. I took a bus to the park.
  3. I’ll build a fire in the fireplace.
  4. Josh is reading a newspaper article.
  5. He’s going to a birthday party.
  6. I’m going to the store for eggs, milk, bananas, and bread.

Exercise 22

  1. Many of the students are going on vacation tomorrow.
  2. If I finish my work, I think I can go to the movies tonight.
  3. The weather has been so lovely!
  4. My English class is really fun.
  5. The boys are playing a video game.
  6. Why aren’t you doing your homework?
  7. She doesn’t like cake.
  8. My brother wants to buy a red car.
  9. He said he has a dog, not a cat.
  10. Do you prefer coffee or tea?

unit 8

A Conversation about Cognitive Psychology

Fernando: Hey, Abigail. How are you?

Abigail: Hi Fernando. I’m doing great. How are you?

Fernando: Not bad. Are you still going to university?

Abigail: Yes. Right now, I’m taking a psychology course, and I’ve been learning a lot.

Fernando: That’s great. What kind of psychology are you studying?

Abigail: The class is about cognitive psychology.

Fernando: What is cognitive psychology?

Abigail: It’s the study of internal mental processes, such as memory, attention, language, and learning.

Fernando: I’m sorry, but I’m not sure I understand what you mean. Can you rephrase that?

Abigail: Of course. In other words, it’s the science of how we think and process information.

Fernando: Ok, now I understand. Is the class difficult?

Abigail: Sometimes. I’m really enjoying it, though. We do a lot of research in the class. Sometimes we play games to test our own memories and apply what we’ve learned in class.

Fernando: What kind of games?

Abigail: One game we played was to flip through a deck of cards and then see how many cards you could remember after one minute. It’s actually a lot harder than you think, but there are ways to help you remember more.

Fernando: Is memory a big topic in cognitive psychology?

Abigail: Yes, it is. Scientists haven’t found a limit to long-term memory. Once something is encoded, it remains in your long-term memory forever.

Fernando: I don’t know what you mean by that. Can you say that another way?

Abigail: Yes, let me rephrase that. Your brain creates codes or stores information from your experiences. Once this information is stored, it’s in your brain forever. There is also no limit to the amount of information your brain can hold.

Fernando: If that’s true, why can’t I remember where I put my shoes, keys, or cell phone?

Abigail: That’s a good question. The easy answer is that not everything we experience goes into long-term memory. Also, not everything in our long-term memory is easily recalled.

Fernando: So, what you’re saying is that even if my brain knows the information, I can’t access it whenever I want?

Abigail: Exactly. Sometimes, we have to find the right thing to trigger or recall a memory. It can be a sound that was playing during that experience or a certain smell.

Fernando: That’s interesting.

Abigail: Wait until you hear this. Did you know that smell travels through the part of your brain that is responsible for memories?

Fernando: Really?

Abigail: It’s true. That’s why the smell of certain foods can take you right back to your mom or grandmother’s kitchen. Smells are great for triggering memories. Do you have a smell that makes you remember something strongly?

Fernando: Yes, I do! The smell of lavender reminds me of my aunt and uncle’s home in the country. I used to visit every summer. They have a garden full of lavender. It’s my favorite smell because it’s one of my favorite childhood memories.

Abigail: See? I told you cognitive psychology is interesting but difficult.

Fernando: You’re right. You’ll have to tell me what else you learn when the class is over.

Abigail: No problem!

PowerPoint 8.2

A Lecture about Psychology

[Slide 1] Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Throughout time, there have been many people that contributed to this study. Three big names in psychology are Ivan Pavlov, Burrhus Frederic Skinner, and Abraham Maslow. Each of these men helped shape the study of psychology that we know today.

[Slide 2] It might come as a surprise that Ivan Pavlov was not a psychologist. Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who lived from 1849 to 1936. Pavlov discovered the theory we know today as “classical conditioning” by accident. Classical conditioned learning is about an environmental signal that can cause a natural reaction where it normally wouldn’t. Pavlov discovered this through experiments with dogs.

[Slide 3] Pavlov would ring a bell right before bringing food to the dogs. The dogs would begin to salivate when they saw the food. He repeated this action multiple times until the dogs would begin to salivate at the sound of the bell without the presence of food. The environmental signal of a bell became linked to the natural reaction of salivating.

Classical conditioning happens in three steps. The first step is the before conditioned state. This means you need a natural signal which causes a natural reaction. For Pavlov’s experiment, this was the presence of food causing the dogs to salivate. The food making the dogs salivate is natural, meaning it doesn’t need to be forced. The second step is the conditioning state. This requires a separate environmental signal, like the sound of a bell, that is not connected naturally to the reaction, making the dogs salivate. This new signal is repeated in addition to the natural signal. Pavlov would ring the bell while bringing the dogs food. The third step is the after-conditioning state. This is when the new signal alone is used and causes the same reaction as the natural signal.

[Slide 4] For Pavlov, this was ringing the bell without giving the dogs food, but the dogs still salivated at the sound. Pavlov’s theory is that we can condition people or animals to behave a certain way or, in other words, to be trained.

[Slide 5] Burrhus Frederic Skinner had a different approach to the study of psychology. Skinner is best known for his theory of operant conditioning.

[Slide 6] Skinner’s theory studied a reward and punishment system that influenced behavior. Positive reinforcement is the idea that behavior is strengthened by a reward. This will ensure that the behavior is repeated.

[Slide 7] Skinner’s experiment on rats helped him understand this idea. Rats were placed in a box that contained a lever on the side. Once the lever was pulled, a food pellet would be released. The rats quickly learned that pulling the lever meant getting food. The reward of food reinforced the behavior to pull the lever.

[Slide 8] Next, Skinner talked about negative reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is the removal of a bad consequence if you complete an action. Skinner placed rats into a box with an electric current. Once they pulled the lever, the current would be turned off. The removal of the current reinforced the behavior of pulling the lever. Skinner believed that reinforcing behavior through positive or negative reinforcement is the best way to shape behavior.

[Slide 9] Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist who created the hierarchy of needs. This theory deals with developmental psychology. It talks about the five stages of human development. The five stages are physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging, and self-actualization. It is believed that a person needs to fulfill each level entirely before being able to move on to the next level.

[Slide 10] The first stage is physiological needs, which are about survival. They are the basic human needs: water, food, and shelter. Once those needs are met, you can move on to safety needs. This is personal security like a job or money. This need helps to make sure physiological needs are no longer a concern. Safety is also about having optimal health. Once you are satisfied with this stage, you can move on to love and belonging. This stage is about friendship, family, intimacy, or a sense of connection. Humans are social animals and relationships are important to this stage. If you have good relationships and connections, you feel loved and like you belong. After this, you move on to the stage that deals with esteem. This is how you feel about yourself as a person. Do you have self-respect? Do you have status? Are you recognized for the work you do? Do you feel you have a good amount of freedom in your life? Your esteem builds up, and once you are secure in yourself, you can move to the final stage. Self-actualization is the desire to become the most that you can be. This is the desire to make your mark on the world or get a promotion at work.

[Slide 11] Maslow believed that each stage needs to be fully developed before moving on to the next. You cannot focus on good relationships when you are worried about where you will sleep or how you will feed yourself. You can’t be the best version of yourself if the relationships you have are not helping you feel loved or like you belong. Maslow’s hierarchy is important because it explains the psychology of human motivation. It helps you understand what makes people do what they do.

[Slide 12] To summarize, Pavlov, Skinner, and Maslow gave us the foundations for Psychology as we know it today. Studying behavior is difficult and there is still a lot about the brain that we don’t know. We are always adapting and learning about human experiences. Are there any questions?

Exercise 21

  1. clarify
  2. psychology
  3. characteristic
  4. education
  5. identify
  6. guarantee
  7. Japanese
  8. vision
  9. psychological
  10. photography

unit 9

Exercise 7

  1. I can’t decide what I want to eat tonight. I don’t feel like cooking. I’m too tired to go out. Should I just order pizza? But I have pizza almost every night. I wish there were other places that deliver food.

  2. Mom: No, Billy. It’s too cold today.
    Billy: But, Mom, the water temperature is going to be warm and we’ll be indoors.
    Mom: You’re going to catch a cold when you go out.
    Billy: No, I won’t. My friends are all going and they’re waiting for me.
    Mom: Will there be an adult be there?
    Billy: Yes, Sam’s dad will be there. He’s a lifeguard.
    Mom: Ok. Don’t forget your towel.

  3. I can’t believe someone would take something that doesn’t belong to them. It was parked in my own driveway. They didn’t even have my keys. How did they start the engine? I hope my insurance will take care of it.

  4. Woman A: These are killing my feet, but they’re so pretty.
    Woman B: Why don’t you take them off?
    Woman A: I need something fancy and I want to look taller. Ooh. my toes feel numb. I need to take these off.

    Woman B: Let’s look for something nice, but a little more comfortable.
  5. The heavy rain is causing big problems in the small town. People are fleeing their homes because water is coming into their houses. Cars are being swept away by the rising water. The mayor has told everyone to evacuate. Many people have lost everything.

A Conversation about Communication

Charles: Hey, Melissa. What are you doing?

Melissa: Oh, hey Charles. I’m just finishing a project for my class.

Charles: Cool. What’s it about?

Melissa: Well, have you ever thought about the way we communicate today?

Charles: Not really. What do you mean?

Melissa: It’s quite interesting. In my class, we’ve been studying forms of communication. I decided to do my project on the history of communication. Most people don’t give it a second thought, but the topic is truly remarkable.

Charles: Haven’t we always communicated the same way?

Melissa: No, we haven’t. I’ve thought about this a lot. What ways do you communicate with friends and family?

Charles: I call or text on my phone. Sometimes we communicate through social media.

Melissa: Exactly. We’ve become accustomed to this form of communication, but it’s fairly new. For example, 20 years ago, we didn’t have a lot of the social media platforms that we have now. Also, most of the early platforms don’t exist anymore. Not to mention, if we go back another 20 years, meaning 40 years ago, we didn’t have access to cell phones like we do now. Even more, those cell phones did not have access to the internet!

Charles: I haven’t thought about that a lot, but you’re right. How did people communicate before?

Melissa: The history of communication is fascinating. We can go all the way back to the early people of the world. Sure, people didn’t have electricity, internet, or phones, but they still communicated. Egyptians used hieroglyphics to communicate stories for many decades and centuries. The Mayans, Incas, and Aztecs also had their own way of communicating, such as through cave paintings and other documents we’ve found.

Charles: We’ve taken access to technology for granted.

Melissa: Yes. When was the last time you sent a handwritten letter to someone?

Charles: I’ve never sent a handwritten letter.

Melissa: Why not?

Charles: I can just send a text or an email.

Melissa: Exactly. However, 60 years ago, that was not a possibility. In order to communicate, people wrote letters to each other. They had to send those letters through the mail and wait for a response. It might seem crazy now, but that was reality back then.

Charles: Imagine how long people had to wait for their mail. Today, we can get things delivered within a day or two. Messages are instant.

Melissa: That’s a great point. The invention of the car helped communication, but most people don’t consider that. Imagine what it was like before we had cars and other automobiles? Before cars, the mail was delivered by the Pony Express. People would ride horses with bags of letters to be delivered. It must have taken weeks to get a letter.

Charles: I don’t think I could wait that long for a response. I get impatient if my parents don’t respond to me after an hour.

Melissa: Don’t take it for granted next time. Communication has come a long way. Humans started out communicating through gestures and grunts. We didn’t even have a clear language. Now, we have over 7,000 languages. We have access to people all over the world with a simple click. Before, people couldn’t communicate with each other because of the language barriers. Now, if someone doesn’t speak our language, we can simply download an app that will translate what we say into any language we need.

Charles: I’m glad I’m alive during this time. I don’t know what I’d do without the internet or my phone.

Melissa: A lot of people feel that way.

Information on Cultural Communication

Every culture has its differences. People often focus on the differences in food, education, and family relationships. However, an interesting topic that doesn’t get a lot of attention is the differences in communication.

Communication is an essential part of life in any culture. However, the differences in how each culture communicates is extraordinary. When you live in an area with high diversity, it becomes critical to know and understand these differences. North American, or specifically, the culture in the US, is very different than other cultures in different parts of the world. This can be seen in the different forms of communication.

When you are in North America, or the USA, you will see that people tend to smile often, even if they don’t have a reason to smile. In advertising, people are always smiling because it shows feelings of joy. On the street, a person smiling often means that they are friendly and approachable. However, Americans don’t often make physical contact with the people they meet, unless they are really close friends or family members. The most physical contact you can expect is a handshake.

In contrast, Europeans might smile less often than Americans. In many countries in Europe, smiling for no reason is seen as foolish. Most Europeans prefer to have a neutral facial expression. This can come across as uninviting to other cultures. On the contrary, a lot of countries in Europe, like Spain and France, are known to have a physical quality to their forms of communication. A soft kiss on the cheek or an embrace is normal even with strangers you meet for the first time. This tradition can also be seen in South American countries and cultures. Greeting people with a kiss on the cheek is normal and expected among family, friends, and even strangers.

Another culture that differs in this form of communication is Asia. In a lot of Asian cultures, it is typical to avoid any form of physical contact and any form of facial expressions in business meetings. It is more appropriate to bow than it is to shake hands.

Another difference in communication culture is eye contact. This is a form of nonverbal communication. In North America, eye contact is seen as showing confidence and authority. However, in parts of Asia and even in the Middle East, this can be seen as rude or challenging authority. This is particularly true for women making eye contact with someone of the opposite sex. It would be seen as rude or disrespectful. However, in the USA, refusing eye contact would be seen as rude or disrespectful.

Even the way we speak can be different. For example, Americans can be very direct with what they say when saying something good. So, if your project was excellent, an American might say, “That was an excellent project.” However, if there is something negative to say, Americans become indirect with their words. The “compliment sandwich” is a familiar term amongst Americans. This is when you say something positive, followed by the negative or critique, and end with something positive again. If your project wasn’t great, they might say, “You had some great pictures in your presentation, but your structure wasn’t clear, and your message got lost. But I really liked how you tried to connect with the audience a lot.” This way, the bad doesn’t seem hurtful.

Europeans, especially the British, have a different way of expressing their negative opinions. They can be just as direct with both the positive and negative feedback. A British person might tell you, “The project was rather confusing.” They use the word “rather” to make it seem less offensive, but they aren’t going to compliment you before giving their critique.

The communication culture in India is all about indirect and polite communication. In a business meeting, it is normal for the manager to speak first or answer a question first before any other workers. The manager can give permission for someone else to speak first, but it is unacceptable that they would speak before being given permission. Even the word “no” is seen as too offensive, so most people will disagree in a more indirect way. They might tell you, “Maybe” instead of a direct “no.” Some people might even choose to stay silent rather than directly disagree.

It’s not always easy to understand the cultural differences, but they are important. People communicate differently, and it is our job to realize that different cultures communicate in different ways. If we don’t, we risk offending or being offended by something that was not meant to be offensive.

Exercise 22

  1. I’d like a table for two.
  2. What are you doing?
  3. I can meet you at 5:00.
  4. She likes him.
  5. What should we eat for dinner?
  6. How can this be?
  7. I like peanut butter and jelly
  8. You need to do this today?
  9. She and I are friends.
  10. What did he want?

unit 10

A Conversation about a Music Festival

Stephanie: Hey Carlos. Have you talked to Mia yet?

Carlos: Oh, hi Stephanie. No, I haven’t talked to her today. Why?

Stephanie: She wanted to know if we could go with her this weekend to a music festival.

Carlos: What festival?

Stephanie: I don’t remember the name, but it’s in New Orleans. Have you ever been to a music festival?

Carlos: No, I haven’t. I’ve always wanted to go to a music festival.

Stephanie: Mia has attended a lot of music festivals before. She knows a lot about music. If she’s inviting us to this festival, it must be amazing.

Carlos: Do you know anything else about the music festival?

Stephanie: No. Let’s find Mia and ask her. She’ll be able to tell us.

Carlos: Ok.

Stephanie: Hey Mia. I was talking to Carlos about the music festival this weekend. Can you tell us more about it?

Mia: Yeah, sure. It’s the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival. The locals call it Jazz Fest. It’s an incredible experience. If you have never experienced a music festival before, this will be a great introduction.

Carlos: What kind of music is played at the festival?

Mia: Jazz, of course, but that’s not the only music there. In fact, there are a lot of modern artists that attend the festival. We’ll be able to listen to jazz, R&B, even gospel and rock music. There’s something for everyone here. I’ve been to the festival a few times and it’s one of my favorites.

Stephanie: Is there anything else besides music at the festival?

Mia: Yes! One of my favorite parts of New Orleans is the food. The cuisine in Louisiana is not like anywhere else. The festival provides a space for so many culinary artists to share their food while you walk around and listen to music. Have you ever eaten mango freeze?

Carlos: No, I haven’t.

Stephanie: Neither have I.

Mia: You’re going to love it. It’s my favorite dessert from the festival. You can also walk around the town of New Orleans, which has a beautiful rich history. Another great part of the festival is the display of art and the performers that come to Jazz Fest. You can see the Mardi Gras Indians on parade and buy handmade items. There are woven baskets, jewelry, instruments, photographs and so much more.

Carlos: Wow, the festival sounds wonderful.

Stephanie: Yeah, I’m excited.

Mia: Great! I know you will enjoy it.

Exercise 13

Many people believe Andrea Bocelli has the most beautiful voice in the world. He has spent much of his life singing and learning instruments. He has even sung for many famous people around the world. He is an Italian opera singer, musician, and musical producer. But people who have only heard his work may not know the full story behind his talents. How did his love of music begin?

(Pause the recording)

Bocelli was born in 1958. He was born with an eye disease called congenital glaucoma. He became completely blind at age 12 after a soccer injury. Growing up, he fell in love with instruments. He was determined not to let his blindness stop him from learning music. He taught himself to read music in braille. He learned to play the flute, saxophone, trumpet, trombone, and more. He also began developing his singing voice. At age 14, he won a small singing contest near his hometown in Italy. Several years later, he went to university to study law. He sang and performed in piano bars at night to help pay for his law education. After graduating, he was a lawyer for just one year before he decided to pursue music instead.

(Pause the recording)

Bocelli began performing throughout Europe and won a couple of singing contests. He then began singing throughout the world. His audiences have included popes, presidents, and Hollywood stars. He recorded both classical and pop albums that reached number one on the Billboard music charts.

(Pause the recording)

Andrea Bocelli did not consider his blindness a disability. In fact, when one sense is not strong, sometimes the other senses are strengthened. Bocelli’s blindness is one of the reasons why he could hear more of the subtle differences in his singing voice. He continues to create music and sell records to this day.

PowerPoint 10.3

Information on Famous Works of Art

[Slide 1] Art has always been subjective, which means it’s different for each person that experiences it. One person may find beauty in a painting, while another can find it confusing or boring. Art is an individual experience, both for the artist and for the viewer. However, art has been a part of human life for as long as humans have been on the earth. Paintings have been an important form of art, even with photography and video. Even though art can be subjective, there are some paintings that have caught the attention of multiple generations long after they were completed. Some of the most famous and important paintings have been The Mona Lisa, Girl with a Pearl Earring, and The Starry Night.

[Slide 2] Leonardo da Vinci was the mastermind behind The Mona Lisa. He painted this masterpiece in the early 1500s. Even today, the painting is seen as an incredible work of art. People all over the world know about The Mona Lisa.

Her smile has captivated many audiences. There are theories behind who she was and why she smiled in such a mysterious way. Even though no one knows the truth, she holds a special place in our hearts. Da Vinci was able to show something special in this woman. The peaceful background works well with the serene look on her face. There are few people that wouldn’t consider this painting incredible.

[Slide 3] Johannes Vermeer created the painting of the Girl with a Pearl Earring in 1665. At first glance, this seems like a simple painting of a young woman. However, the portrait of the young woman is very life-like. It is more like a picture than a painting.

Vermeer was known for his composition in photographs, meaning the way he placed objects and people. In Girl with a Pearl Earring, there seems to be no composition at all. We only have the face of a beautiful young woman surrounded by a dark background. This places the focus on her and the way she is looking at the viewer over her shoulder. However, if you look closer, Girl with a Pearl Earring seems to use Fibonacci’s “golden ratio.” The Golden Ratio was a sequence of numbers that create perfect balance and harmony. It’s not entirely clear whether Vermeer planned to use the sequence, but Vermeer creates a composition with perfect proportions, harmony, and beauty. It’s no wonder we are all captivated by this painting.

[Slide 4] The last painting on our list is Starry Night by Vincent Van Gogh. This was Van Gogh’s most popular painting created in 1889. There is some speculation as to what Starry Night is about. Van Gogh created this painting while he was in an asylum. Van Gogh put himself in the asylum after cutting off his left ear. He was suffering from mental illness and the asylum was meant to help him recover. He began painting while he was in the asylum, and most of his paintings involved nature. His paintings reflected feelings of comfort and transformation.

Most art lovers believe Starry Night represents his state of mind. The swirls and the orbs are a representation of the battle between his demons and the peace that nature would bring him. Although the sky seems to be chaotic, the town seems peaceful and quiet. The painting has inspired many artists even today.

[Slide 5] Art is one of the world’s greatest forms of communication. It can communicate a message with people of all ages, cultures, and backgrounds. For many artists, art is a way of shaping lives or dealing with experiences or circumstances that may not be enchanting. As an artist, you can express yourself through your artwork and reach people you may never meet. As a viewer you can learn about history or modern times. You can view things in a different way and become more aware of the world around you. If you haven’t visited an art museum recently, I suggest you make a trip soon.

Exercise 17

  1. I dream of painting / and then I paint my dream.
  2. No great artist ever sees things as they really are. If he did, / he would cease to be an artist.
  3. Every child is an artist; / the problem is staying an artist / when you grow up.
  4. We don’t make mistakes, / just happy little accidents.
  5. Painting is poetry that is seen / rather than felt, / and poetry is painting that is felt / rather than seen.
  6. Don’t think about making art, / just get it done. / Let everyone else decide if it’s good / or bad, / whether they love it / or hate it. While they are deciding, / make even more art.