Level 4


unit 1

Listening 1 Vocabulary Practice
1. Every morning, Bob has a ritual preparation of brushing his teeth, taking a shower, and making his breakfast.
2. Bob saw a rude man step in front of an old lady in line for the bus.
3. Bob was polite to the lady and helped her onto the bus.
4. The old lady wanted to offer Bob a job to drive her around the city.
5. Bob said, “I like to drive so I accept the job!”

What’s up, my friends. Today we’re talking about four cultural differences around the world that might surprise you. As always, if you enjoy the video, like and subscribe! I’m Culture Coach bringing you knowledge about the world and the beautiful people in it.

Okay, the first interesting fact we have today comes from Ireland. In Ireland, it is considered polite to say no the first time something is offered, even if you want to accept it. For example, if someone offers you some cake, you should first say you don’t want any. The person offering it should offer multiple times to be polite, and you can accept the second time they offer it. If you ignore this custom, you might be seen as too direct or even rude.
Have you ever traveled on public transportation that was full of people but almost silent? This is how it is in Japan. It’s polite to be quiet when traveling on trains or subways. No loud conversations with your friends, and it’s even considered rude to talk on the phone. Japanese people are very aware of how their actions might affect people around them, and they try to be very respectful of others.
Now let’s go to the United States of America. Something that surprises many visitors to the US is that Americans might ask how you are as they walk past you, without waiting to hear your answer. This is because it is a ritual greeting in the US. Some appropriate responses are “Good, thanks,” “I’m doing great,” or even “Good, how are you?” without waiting for a response. Even though it might feel rude to you, it’s not considered impolite in the US.
Okay, our last fact is about the culture in Saudi Arabia. If you tell a Saudi Arabian that you like something they have, like a watch they are wearing, don’t be surprised if they offer it to you! Saudi Arabians are very hospitable people and they want to show that you are more valuable
than the item they own. The polite thing to do is to decline by saying something like, “Thank
you, but it looks better on you.”
And that’s all for today! Leave a comment below with something you learned! See you next

Listening 2 Vocabulary Practice
1. My teacher is so interesting. She helps me understand the material by playing games. Her
teaching style is so fun!
2. I always wanted to visit a different country, so I will do a study abroad next semester.
3. I am saving my money because traveling can be very expensive!
4. The program is not in a big city, it’s in a rural place in the mountains.
5. Fortunately, the program isn’t very competitive because not a lot of people want to go.

Laura: Hey, Benjamin, you’re from Finland, right? 

Benjamin: Hi, Laura. Yeah, that’s right. I grew up there. 

Laura: My friend is thinking about doing a study abroad there. Can I ask you some questions about school in Finland? 

Benjamin: Yeah, totally. 

Laura: So I’ve heard that schools in Finland don’t have any homework. How did you learn like that? 

Benjamin: Well, that’s not completely true. We have homework, but it’s a lot less than in other countries. Teachers try to make sure the homework is focused on helping students practice what they’re learning, not just to keep them busy. They usually assign homework a few times a week and it usually takes about an hour to finish. 

Laura: Oh, nice. It wasn’t like that in my country. We had homework every day! 

Benjamin: And you’re from Colombia, right? 

Laura: Yeah. 

Benjamin: I read that in Colombia, students are in charge of how much they learn and they learn at their own speed. The teacher doesn’t just give them information all day. They learn it by themselves. 

Laura: Yeah, in rural places it’s like that. Is that how it is in Finland? 

Benjamin: Not really. But classrooms are a little more flexible, especially in primary school. Students can move around and choose to sit in different areas to learn 

Laura: Interesting. There are a lot of different teaching styles around the world. What about school uniforms? Are uniforms required in Finland? 

Benjamin: Haha, no. I’ve never worn a school uniform. Do you wear uniforms in Colombia? 

Laura: Yeah, we always had uniforms. They are supposed to help everyone feel equal because everyone wears the same clothes. It doesn’t matter if your family is rich or poor. 

Benjamin: I don’t think I’d like to wear a uniform, but I like that idea. 

Laura: Ok, one more question. If my friend wants to go to a university in Finland, how much would she need to pay? 

Benjamin: Oh, all education is free in Finland so she wouldn’t need to pay anything. But it is really competitive to get in, just so you know. 

Laura: What!? It’s free? I can’t believe that. Universities in Colombia are competitive and expensive. Wow. 

Benjamin: Well maybe you should think about going to Finland with your friend! 

Exercise 14: Listening for Pronunciation
1. matches
2. moves
3. laughs
4. rises
5. offers
6. takes
7. ways
8. Foxes

Exercise 16: Listening for Pronunciation

1. visited
2. stayed
3. matched
4. called
5. bothered
6. pushed
7. closed
8. added

unit 2

Listening 1 Vocabulary Practice
1. Eating a balanced diet–something from every food group–can help you get all the vitamins your body needs.
2. Max ate chicken for breakfast, lunch, and dinner because he needed more protein in his diet.
3. About a quarter of your diet should be grains like brown rice or whole wheat.
4. Different colored vegetables all have different types of nutrients that are important for your health.
5. Eating a lot of fried foods can give you too much fat without a lot of other important nutrients.

Hi there. Are you too tired to think of healthy food to eat? Are you too busy to cook healthy meals? Do you struggle even knowing how to eat in a healthy way? Here are some simple tips to make it easier to be healthy by eating balanced meals.
First, you should know that eating balanced meals doesn’t need to be complicated or expensive. Just try to include fruit, vegetables, protein, grains, and some fat in each meal. But remember, if you miss a food group at one meal, that’s ok. You can include it as a snack or try to have it in your next meal.
Now let’s talk about why each food group is important. First, fruits and vegetables are loaded with nutrients that can help keep your body healthy, like your heart, eyes, and immune system. They also provide fiber which keeps our blood sugar levels balanced and our digestion healthy. Second, protein helps us build and repair muscles and bones and helps us feel full. Third, grains give us energy and nutrients that can reduce the risk of chronic disease. And fourth, healthy fats help our bodies absorb nutrients and also help us feel full. The different foods in each group give us different nutrients, so you can see that it’s a good idea to eat a variety of food from each group.
You might be thinking, “Ok, I understand that balanced eating is important, but I still don’t really know how to do it.” Let’s start with some ideas of food in each group. Protein foods include meat, eggs, beans, lentils, nuts, and dairy–like milk, yogurt, or cheese. Grains include things like bread, pasta, rice, quinoa, tortillas, or crackers. Fruits include bananas, oranges, berries, mango, and kiwi. Vegetables include peas, carrots, cucumber, lettuce, and zucchini. Healthy fats include dairy, olive oil, nuts, avocado, and salmon. And a nice thing to remember is that some foods are in multiple groups, like beans and lentils are in the vegetable group and the protein group.
Now, here are some simple balanced meal suggestions. Tacos with salsa and avocado and some beans, rice, and orange slices on the side. A tuna fish sandwich with lettuce and some berries and carrot sticks on the side. It could even be something as simple as sliced cheese and meat on crackers with some cucumber and mango on the side.
Now hopefully you have an idea of how you can improve your eating habits!

Listening 2 Vocabulary Practice
1. Jane really wants to be in shape, but she doesn’t like exercising.
2. Miriam hired a personal trainer to help her learn how to lift weights correctly and eat healthy.
3. Diego pays attention to the current and most recent research about health.
4. Carl eats a lot of vegetables, fruit, and simple foods as part of his normal diet.
5. Bennett typically walks to class each day, but today she rode the bus.

Valerie: Hi, Matt! I’m Valerie, your new personal trainer. Can I ask you some questions so I can get to know more about your health? 

Matt: Sure, that sounds good. 

Valerie: Okay, great. First, what are your health goals? 

Matt: Well, I want to be able to run a 5k with my friend in 3 months. And I just want to be healthier in general. I’ve never been in very good shape, but I want to change that. I get tired walking up the stairs, haha. 

Valerie: Oh, that sounds like a good goal! Tell me, why is this goal important to you? 

Matt: Well, my friends play sports a lot, but I’ve never been very confident playing with them and sometimes I feel embarrassed. I want to feel more confident about what my body can do. 

Valerie: Okay yeah, that sounds great. Have you tried to reach your goal in the past? 

Matt: No, never. I’ve always been too afraid to try. 

Valerie: Yes, many people feel like that. It’s hard, but I’m glad you’re ready to try! 

Matt: Yeah, I realized that my fear might never go away, so I should do something about it instead. 

Valerie: That’s awesome! Good for you! Ok, let me ask about your current health habits. What type of physical activity do you do regularly? 

Matt: Well, I walk to school every day and I climb lots of stairs. Like I said, I play sports with my friends almost every weekend. 

Valerie: What kind of sports do you play? 

Matt: Um, usually basketball, soccer, and ultimate frisbee 

Valerie: Ok, now what type of exercise do you enjoy? 

Matt: I like playing soccer, even though I’m not good at it. Hm…what else…I went to a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu club once and that was really fun! I would do jiu-jitsu again. 

Valerie: Ok, good to know. Now the last thing, how much sleep do you usually get? 

Matt: Ohh, about 5 hours each night. I’m pretty busy with school and work. 

Valerie: Yeah, it’s so hard to get enough sleep when you’re busy. I’m going to recommend trying to get at least an extra hour, though. Adults typically need between 6-8 hours of sleep a night to function well. 

Matt: Ok, I’ll try. 

Valerie: Also, I want you to write down everything you eat for at least three days. The next time we meet we can look it over and talk about your diet. 

Matt: Ok, that sounds hard, but I’ll try! 

unit 3

Domesticated animals–or animals that people keep as pets–often surprise their owners. Although they seem reliant on humans, they sometimes prove that they are as hardy as their untamed relatives and really only need to rely on their own instincts.

One such pet was a three-year-old Persian cat named Howie. In 1977, his 15-year-old owner, Kirsten, and her family were going to take an international trip from their home in Adelaide, Australia to Europe. They decided to leave their cat with Kirsten’s grandparents who lived more than 1,000 miles away in the Gold Coast, Australia.

One month later when the family returned from their trip, they went to pick up their cat and were devastated to find out that Howie had gone missing just a few weeks after they had left. The grandparents had tried as hard as they could to find him, but there was no sign of him. Everyone sadly assumed that the pampered housecat couldn’t survive alone in the Australian wilderness.

Then, a year later, a dirty and skinny cat showed up on the family’s doorstep in Adelaide. Mrs. Hicks felt bad for the scraggly animal, so she took it inside and fed it some food. When Kirsten got home from school, she walked in and saw the cat. She immediately shouted, “Howie!” and rushed to hold him.

Kirsten’s mother was shocked, but sure enough, it was Howie. He had travelled over one thousand miles through very dangerous terrain to return home to his family.

Domesticated animals–or animals that people keep as pets–often surprise their owners. Although they seem reliant on humans, they sometimes prove that they are as hardy as their untamed relatives and really only need to rely on their own instincts.

Listening 2 Vocabulary Practice

1. I spent a lot of time at the beach as a child because I lived by the coast.

2. My dog once found an old and smelly bird carcass lying on the beach.

3. People usually perceive the beach as being sandy and sunny, but my beach was actually rocky and cold.

4. My dog is very carnivorous. He won’t eat any plants.

5. Although there weren’t a lot of people where I lived, there was a small residential area where people built their homes.

If you visit Alaska, you might see one of the largest land animals in North America, the brown bear. You may also hear this bear referred to as a grizzly bear. Grizzly and brown bears are the same species, however, brown bears live in coastal areas while their grizzly brothers live in the interior parts of Alaska.

One of the biggest bears in the world is the Kodiak brown bear, which lives on Kodiak Island off the southern coast of Alaska. This type of brown bear can weigh up to 1,500 pounds (or 680 kg) and can be 7 to 10 feet tall when standing on their hind legs. Kodiak bears are able to grow so large due to their ideal environment where they have access to plentiful amounts of salmon, a variety of plants for food, and live in a relatively mild climate compared to other parts of Alaska. In these conditions, a brown bear’s average life span is between 20 to 25 years.

While bears are commonly thought to be solely carnivorous, they, like humans, actually eat a wide variety of foods, including salmon, berries, grasses, roots, and squirrels. Brown bears will scavenge animal carcasses they find with their exceptional sense of smell, but they also hunt caribou and moose when needed. Despite their large size, brown bears can reach a speed of up to 40 miles per hour when sprinting short distances, which helps make them successful hunters. Alaskan brown bears need to store enough fat to hibernate through the long winters, so they eat 80 to 90 pounds of food per day. Because they need to find plentiful food, bears can become problems to humans in residential areas if food or garbage is stored improperly outside.

Although brown bears are often perceived as aggressive predators to humans, in reality they usually try to avoid humans if at all possible. Bears are extremely intelligent and use their sharp senses to avoid confrontations. If they are surprised by a human, they will generally flee unless it is a mother bear protecting her cubs. This is not to say that it is safe to try to approach a bear in nature. In contrast, bears are dangerous wild animals that should be treated with respect.

If you visit Alaska, you might see one of the largest land animals in North America, the brown bear. You may also hear this bear referred to as a grizzly bear. Grizzly and brown bears are the same species; however, brown bears live in coastal areas while their grizzly brothers live in the interior parts of Alaska.

One of the biggest bears in the world is the Kodiak brown bear, which lives on Kodiak Island off the southern coast of Alaska. This type of brown bear can weigh up to 1,500 pounds (or 680 kg) and can be 7 to 10 feet tall when standing on their hind legs.

Exercise 20: Listening for Pronunciation

1. What time is your class?

2. Did you go to the café this morning?

3. Is your brother home?

4. Why were you so early?

5. How is your dog doing?

6. Do you go hiking sometimes?

7. Can you show me where the bus stop is?

8. When was the last time you went to the doctor?

unit 4

1. The militant protesters began destroying stores, homes, and cars parked in the streets.

2. Gabriela didn’t know who gave her the money because it was in an anonymous envelope.

3. The famous Colombian singer was recognizable in most parts of the world.

4. The teenagers gave their classmate a threat that if he told the teacher what they did, they would steal his backpack.

5. Ben lost consciousness when he fell and hit his head.

1. Adam: I’m going to talk a little bit about Malala’s early life. She was born in Mingora, Pakistan on July 12th, 1997 and her parents named her after Afghanistan’s national heroine, who was a poet and warrior woman. Malala is the oldest child in her family and she has two brothers. Her father was a schoolteacher and an activist for education and he taught at a girls school. He helped shape Malala through his example of activism and by helping to educate her.

2. Emily: Unfortunately, in 2008, the Taliban, a religious militant group, took over Malala’s town in Pakistan. They immediately made laws against television and music and said that girls couldn’t go to school anymore. During that time, Malala had one of the first opportunities to make her voice heard. This was because she was asked to write an anonymous blog for a major news source describing what life was like under Taliban control. She continued to write the blog until the Taliban eventually allowed girls to go to school again.

3. Adam: Malala knew that everyone deserves the right to an education, so she started giving speeches about education for girls. She became recognizable from her public appearances, and she began receiving death threats. Then, on October 9th, 2012 she was on the bus going home from school when a masked Taliban gunman got on the bus and shot her. She was only 15 years old.

4. Adam: She has tried to make important world changes for good. For example, in 2013, she started the Malala Fund, a charity focused on giving girls educational and life opportunities. Then in December 2014 at age 17, she became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of her activism for education rights. She studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics at the University of Oxford and graduated in 2020 and got married in 2021. And she continues to fight for education and equality for girls.

Emily: Hi, I’m Emily and this is Adam. We’re presenting on someone you might have heard of before, Malala Yousafzai. We chose her because she is an example of how one person can make a difference in the world.

Adam: Thanks, Emily. I’m going to talk a little bit about Malala’s early life. She was born in Mingora, Pakistan on July 12th, 1997 and her parents named her after Afghanistan’s national heroine, who was a poet and warrior woman. Malala is the oldest child in her family and she has two brothers. Her father was a schoolteacher and an activist for education and he taught at a girls school. He helped shape Malala through his example of activism and by helping to educate her.

Emily: Unfortunately, in 2008, the Taliban, a religious militant group, took over Malala’s town in Pakistan. They immediately made laws against television and music and said that girls couldn’t go to school anymore. During that time, Malala had one of the first opportunities to make her voice heard. This was because she was asked to write an anonymous blog for a major news source describing what life was like under Taliban control. She continued to write the blog until the Taliban eventually allowed girls to go to school again.

Adam: Malala knew that everyone deserves the right to an education, so she started giving speeches about education for girls. She became recognizable from her public appearances, and she began receiving death threats. Then, on October 9th, 2012 she was on the bus going home from school when a masked Taliban gunman got on the bus and shot her. She was only 15 years old.

Emily: A bullet hit Malala on the left side of her head, her neck, and her shoulder and she lost consciousness. Two other girls were also wounded in the attack, but they both survived. People weren’t sure if Malala was going to survive. She was unconscious for 10 days while she had operations. Then she woke up in a hospital in England, where her family had had to relocate to get her treatment. Miraculously, Malala was able to fully recover.

Adam: What would you do if you had a second chance at life? I’ll talk about what Malala has chosen to do with hers. She has tried to make important world changes for good. For example, in 2013, she started the Malala Fund, a charity focused on giving girls educational and life opportunities. Then in December 2014 at age 17, she became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of her activism for education rights. She studied Philosophy, Politics and Economics at the University of Oxford and graduated in 2020 and got married in 2021. And she continues to fight for education and equality for girls.

Emily: So you can see from what you’ve heard that Malala is an amazing person who has really made an impact on the world even though she wasn’t born into a rich or famous family and she’s still quite young. And just like Malala, you all can make an impact on the world, too. Thank you.

Interviewer: Who is the most influential person in your life?

Speaker: Well, I have had a lot of people who have influenced my life, but I think the one person who has influenced my life the most is my grandmother, Gogo Tinah.

Interviewer: Tell me a little about her.

Speaker: So Gogo Tinah was born in 1945 and grew up in an impoverished, rural area. Times were different back then and education was considered more of a luxury than a necessity, so Gogo Tinah wasn’t able to go to school because she had to start working to help support her family. But that doesn’t mean she isn’t smart. She is actually very intelligent. She has spent her life learning, even though she didn’t get a formal education. She’s also very determined and is a hard worker. She always taught us to work hard for our life goals, and she has always been an example of someone who does that. She’s lived through some challenging times, but she has always believed the future will continue to improve.

Interviewer: Why is she so influential in your life?

Speaker: Gogo Tinah is an example to me of someone who is always caring for others and she is always positive and encouraging, even when things are difficult.

Interviewer: Will you describe how she has influenced you?

Speaker: Well, when she was young, she got married and had 5 children. Unfortunately, her husband, my grandfather, died and left her alone to raise them. She made sure all her children went to school and tried to give them life opportunities that she never had. After her children grew up, two of them died from a sickness that went through their community. Her other three children had families, including my parents, but there weren’t any job opportunities where they lived, so they left in search of work. I remember my parents sent money home to us, but they were gone for a long time. My grandmother raised me and her other grandchildren, my cousins, for many years by herself. She did whatever she could to make sure we had food to eat and were able to go to school.

Interviewer: Wow, that’s amazing. How did she do that successfully?

Speaker: I don’t know! Like I said, Gogo Tinah is very determined. She somehow made things work. And she never complained even though life was very challenging. It was a tough situation, but she was always kind to us and loved us.

Interviewer: Gogo Tinah sounds like an incredible person.

Speaker: Yes, she is. I’m very lucky to have her.

-tion/-sion      dimension, education, demonstration

-ity      curiosity, similarity, responsibility

-ify      classify, identify, exemplify

unit 5

Good morning, everyone. We have a very special episode today on my show. We are going to talk about innovation. I want to take a look at three of the most innovative designs from history to today.

Let’s start by defining innovation. What is innovation? An innovative idea is something that is unique, new, and introduces a new way of seeing or thinking about things. What that means is the idea or invention has to be different than what already exists. If you improve something that exists, that’s great, but it’s not innovative.

Innovation is extremely important in our lives. One of the most innovative ideas in our history is the printing press. Imagine what life was like before we had the printing press. At first, people had to carve images on walls. Next, they learned how to use ink on paper. They didn’t even have pens and pencils like we do today! They had to dip a quill, usually made from goose feathers, into ink that they made themselves. They could only write a few words before they had to dip the quill again. This meant that not everyone knew how to read or write. Only scholarly people were able to enjoy books or any other kind of publication. Then, Gutenberg had the innovative idea of the printing press. This changed history! The printing press has allowed literacy to be accessible to many more people. Everyday people, like you and me, are able to read and write because of this innovative idea. Without the printing press, professors would still be the only ones reading. It doesn’t matter what you like to read, it’s all possible because of the printing press.

Another great innovative idea is the lightbulb. There is a lot of controversy behind the invention of the lightbulb. Was it invented by Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla, or someone else? The electric light, or similar designs, were around long before Thomas Edison. Edison was the first to patent the idea, which means he claimed it to be his own idea or invention. However, a man named Humphry Davy actually invented an electric light in 1802. This was 77 years before Edison patented his design. Furthermore, Nikola Tesla worked with Edison for a few years. He helped improve a lot of the work that he had. Edison and Tesla worked on the light bulb together, but history only mentions Edison. Tesla believed using alternating current would be better, but Edison wanted to use direct current. Edison’s design turned out to be inferior to Tesla’s design. In fact, Tesla’s designs are still used in many of our devices, like the radio, television, and of course, the Tesla cars.

Additionally, the automobile is another innovative design that changed human lives. Where would we be without this incredible invention? I mean, humans have always found a way to travel. Earlier humans were nomads. They walked wherever they needed to go and changed locations often. It took a long time to get to new places because they didn’t have access to any other form of transportation. Soon came the domestication of animals, and that changed the way people moved. The ability to ride a horse was important. This was the first real form of transportation and allowed people to travel even farther. However, the gas-powered automobile wasn’t invented until the late 1800s. Now, it might look very different from the cars we have today, but without this first car, we wouldn’t have all the amazing vehicles we have come to love. This innovative design gave people freedom of mobility. Now, we can travel across a city, a state, or a country in a personal vehicle. Of course, this encouraged other transportation designs, like the airplane, which expanded our world even more.

Can you imagine what life would be like without any of these inventions? Life would probably be more difficult. I’m thankful for all the amazing people who gave us the gift of their knowledge. Are there any innovative ideas you feel we should explore in our next episode? Let me know.

Carmen: Hey Andrew, can you help me?

Andrew: Sure, what’s up Carmen?

Carmen: Well, I got a new Apple Watch, but I don’t know how to connect it to my phone.

Andrew: I love Apple Watches. They are the best invention of our time. I have had a lot of them, so I can definitely help you get it connected.

Carmen: Thank you! Sometimes, I don’t understand all the new technology we have.

Andrew: No problem. First, make sure the watch is turned on. If it’s not, just press the button on the side for a few seconds until you see the Apple logo come up.

Carmen: Ok.  It’s on now.

Andrew: Great. Now, you want to take your phone out and bring it next to the watch. This should bring up a pairing screen automatically.

Carmen: Ok, I have my phone and my watch next to each other, but the pairing screen didn’t come up. What should I do?

Andrew: Hm, that’s strange. Ok, do you have the Apple Watch app on your phone?

Carmen: Yes, I downloaded it a few minutes ago.

Andrew: Perfect. Open the app and find where it says, “pair new watch.”

Carmen: Yes, I see that.

Andrew: Then, you’ll want to click on “set up for myself.” Do you see that on your phone?

Carmen: I do. Ok, I clicked it. Now what do I do?

Andrew: Take your phone and put it over your Apple watch. You should see your watch in the view finder, like it’s going to take a picture. Once it’s in view, the watch should pair to your phone.

Carmen: Yes, it worked!

Andrew: Excellent. Finally, you should be able to finish setting up your watch to your preferences. Is this your first Apple Watch?

Carmen: Yes, it is. I want to live a healthier life, and I have heard great things about the watch.

Andrew: Oh, yes. The new Apple Watch has so many innovative features to help with having a healthy lifestyle. I really like the “Reflect” feature and the “Focus” feature, too.

Carmen: What are those?

unit 6

Mason: Hey Sarah, can you help me?

Sarah: Sure, Mason. What’s up?

Mason: My presentation is due on Monday, and I’m worried it’s too boring. Do you mind listening to what I have so far?

Sarah: I’d be happy to. What is the presentation about?

Mason: It’s for my science class. We’ve been talking about different natural disasters. I decided to do my presentation on earthquakes.

Sarah: Really? Why did you choose Earthquakes?

Mason: I chose Earthquakes because my country suffers from a lot of them.

Sarah: I didn’t know that. Where are you from?

Mason: I’m from Chile.

Sarah: That’s really cool. You should add that to your presentation.

Mason: Excellent idea! Ok, let me start my presentation. I’ll periodically ask you for your opinion. Is that ok?

Sarah: Of course.

Mason: Great, thanks. Good morning classmates. I want to talk today about something that I feel passionately about, Earthquakes. Before we begin, there are a few things you need to know. First, natural disasters are large geological events that have the potential to cause damage to property. Second, most natural disasters cannot be predicted, and that makes them more dangerous. An earthquake, in my opinion, is the worst natural disaster. What do you think about the introduction?

Sarah: I think it’s great. Keep going.

Mason: What is an earthquake? An earthquake is when the surface of the Earth shakes because of a sudden release of energy. There are parts of the Earth called tectonic plates. These plates can move or shift. When this happens, the ground shakes and can even break open. The reality is that the tectonic plates are always slowly moving, but sometimes they can get stuck. When this happens, energy is built up, and when they become unstuck, that energy causes the Earth’s surface to shake. The movement could be small and unfelt by people, while some of them are so violent that it causes death and damage. Ok, do you think this information is clear?

Sarah: Yes, I think you explained that clearly. You are easy to understand.

Mason: Thank you. So, what makes earthquakes so dangerous? Why are they among the worst of the natural disasters? Unfortunately, under the surface of the Earth, there are several tectonic plates that are constantly moving. The movement is slow, but nonstop. This means that earthquakes can happen at any time, anywhere. Earthquakes are unpredictable. Not only this, but earthquakes are the cause of other natural disasters. Landslides are usually caused by earthquakes. Tsunamis are caused by earthquakes that begin under the ocean floor. So, not only are they unpredictable, but they also cause chain reactions that cause even more death and damage.

Sarah: That’s interesting. I never thought about how tsunamis or landslides are the effects of earthquakes. Your presentation is very informative.

Mason: I’m glad you feel that way. I’m almost finished with what I have.

Sarah: Ok, go ahead.

Mason: Earthquakes are more common in some places than others. The reason for this is because of the location of fault lines. Fault lines are where the Earth breaks when tectonic plates move. The fault lines are the reason there are Earthquakes with the movement of tectonic plates. In the United States, California is home to the San Andreas Fault. The fault is more than 650 miles long and at least 10 miles deep. A lot of smaller faults connect to the San Andreas Fault. The fault causes many earthquakes in southern California. The biggest concern for seismologists, or scientists that study earthquakes, is that San Andreas has been waiting for a big earthquake for 80 years. When that happens, the effects of the earthquake will be catastrophic. That’s all I have so far. What do you think?

Sarah: I think your presentation was informative and well thought out. I really enjoyed learning more about earthquakes. I want to learn more about the San Andreas Fault! My only suggestion would be to add information about Chile. This will make the information more personal.

Mason: Thank you Sarah. I appreciate your feedback. I hope my presentation goes well.

Sarah: I’m sure it will. See you later Mason

1. Many people in poor neighborhoods don’t have access to good quality internet.

2. It is good to be cautious about sharing account usernames and passwords.

3. Focus on the details of the picture, not on what you can immediately see.

4. The supply of tuna in the oceans is shrinking.

5. Some fish can only survive in freshwater, not in ocean water.

Samir: Good morning, Min-soo. How are you today?

Min-soo: Good morning, Samir. I’m doing well today. Are you excited about the long weekend?

Samir: Yes, I am. I am going home this weekend to visit my family. I’m most excited about seeing my older brother.

Min-soo: That is so exciting. Why are you looking forward to seeing your older brother?

Samir: My brother is a scientist, and we barely get to see him. He is always in a different place.

Min-soo: Really? What kind of science does he study?

Samir: Ordinarily, he studies Earth Science. However, he specialized in hydrogeology last year. So, he’s been focusing his research on hydrogeology.

Min-soo: I’ve never heard about hydrogeology. What is that?

Samir: I’m not surprised. Hydrogeology isn’t as common as other areas of science. It’s the study of groundwater. A hydrogeologist studies the flow of groundwater.

Min-soo: Groundwater? Is that like water under the ground?

Samir: Yes, exactly.

Min-soo: What exactly does a hydrogeologist do?

Samir: There are many jobs that a hydrogeologist focuses on. Mainly, they are worried about the availability of sustainable water supplies. Meaning, do we have enough clean water to survive? There are many places on the planet that have trouble getting clean water for drinking, farming, or even bathing.

Min-soo: Wow, your brother’s job sounds difficult but important.

Samir: Yes, we are very proud of him. There are places in our home country that have trouble accessing clean water. My brother feels very strongly about this. He decided to try and help our country and other countries.

Min-soo: Is there anything else that hydrogeology tries to help with?

Samir: Surprisingly, hydrogeology also helps with geothermal energy. This is a renewable energy source that uses the heat that the earth produces. We use geothermal energy to heat the water we use for bathing and heating buildings. We could also use it to create electricity.

Min-soo: That’s impressive. Where has your brother been working now?

Samir: He has been traveling through different areas of Western Africa. He sends us emails about his research all the time. In many of the cities he’s been to, his team has been finding ways to create water wells that will give people easier access to clean drinking water. It’s not something easy to do in that area because it is mostly desert and the closest body of water can be more than 20 to 50 miles away.

Min-soo: I see. So, what’s the hardest part of creating solutions other than the distance?

Samir: Honestly, there are many problems that my brother tells us about. Mostly, he says that even if they create a system that carries the water closer to the village, they have to be cautious of emptying the natural supply of the rivers or lakes that they are using as a source. If that happened, it would cause a lot of different environmental problems.

Min-soo: More people should know about hydrogeology. It seems like something important to know.

Samir: You’re right. I plan on studying hydrogeology, too. I hope to help my brother with his research, but I also hope to teach a course on hydrogeology in the future. I want more people to realize how important this study is. We need water to live. Without clean drinking water, we wouldn’t be able to do a lot of the things we take for granted.

Min-soo: I agree. I think it’s great that you want to be a hydrogeologist like your brother.

Samir: Yes. It’s a topic we both feel strongly about. Most people think we have plenty of water on Earth. The truth is, even though the Earth is 70% water, only 3% of that water is freshwater. Of that 3%, only 1.2% can be used as drinking water right now. A lot of the water is trapped deep underground or in glaciers.

Min-soo: That is crazy to think about! Wow, Samir. Thank you for telling me about this. I might have to do more research on hydrogeology.

Samir: I’m happy to teach you anything else you want to know.

Min-soo: Thank you. I hope you enjoy your visit with your brother and your family. Let me know what new information your brother tells you!

Samir: Thanks Min-soo. I’ll talk to you next week.

1. She rode the beautiful horse / through the grassy field.

2. She is living with her sister / and a high school friend.

3. The office is closed / but the lights are still on.

4. The program’s best artist / is also my uncle.

5. Blake saw his childhood friend / at the music festival.

1. That guy / in the black shirt / plays saxophone / in a jazz band.

2. Have you ever thought / that you’d like to be a teacher?

3. After the performance, / let’s go get ice cream.

4. It’s really hard work sometimes, / but the rewards are great.

5. I’d love to learn to play the electric guitar / in the next five years / so I can join a band.

6. It is a difficult task to choose a profession / when you’re young / and inexperienced.

7. Why did you decide to become / a professional musician?

8. Melanie studied to become a lawyer, / but she never enjoyed / the actual job / after she got out of school.

unit 7


A: Welcome, how can I help you?

B: Hi, I’m here to check in for my appointment.

A: Great. I’ll just get some information from you really quick. When was the last time you had your teeth professionally cleaned?

B: About a year ago.

A: Great, and what kind of toothbrush do you use?

B: An electric toothbrush.

A: Ok, and how often do you brush your teeth?

B: Every morning and night.

A: Ok, great. You can take a seat over there.


A: Excuse me, can you help me?

B: Sure, what do you need?

A: I’m looking for this shirt but in a size large. I can only find it in medium.

B: Okay, I know we have a few more items in stock in the back. Let me go check for you.

A: Great, thank you.


A: Have you seen this movie before?

B: No, but I’ve heard a lot of good things about it.

A: I haven’t seen it either. I’m really excited! It’s got one of my favorite actors in it.

B: Are you talking about the main guy?

A: Yeah, he’s so good!

B: I agree! Should we get some popcorn and drinks before we go in?

A: Sure! We’ve got a few minutes before the movie starts.

Have you ever been interested in learning a new language? If you’ve tried before, you’ll understand how difficult it can be to learn a new language.

So, what is the best way to learn a new language? Experts agree that people learn faster when they are able to communicate frequently in the language they are learning. However, it can be difficult to practice a second language if you live in a country with only one official language, like in the United States of America.

In spite of having only one official language, the United States is filled with refugees, immigrants, tourists, exchange students, and other types of foreigners who have little English knowledge and need a way to communicate. For this reason, the United States is in desperate need of a way for citizens to learn a second language to be able to communicate with people from around the world.

The biggest and hardest question is, how can we make that a reality? There are some advantages to learning a language when you are young, so the best way to include a second language in the United States would be to change schools into dual immersion programs. The United States already has some dual immersion schools, but they are not available in all areas of the country and usually don’t have support from the government.

So, what are the advantages to having more dual immersion schools? There are many advantages! First, since students start to learn a language young, they won’t be afraid of making mistakes. Most adults struggle to speak in the new language because they are worried about making mistakes. The second advantage is that students in dual immersion schools have lots of people to practice the language with because their classmates are learning the same language. This gives them enough practice to perfect their skills. Third, it is easier for students who already speak the new language but can’t speak very much English to adapt to the new country and language. They won’t feel so out of place and can still speak their native language, while still learning English. Therefore, dual immersion schools are very beneficial!

Are there any negative things about dual immersion schools? Some people argue that young students can get confused by learning two languages simultaneously. Students may feel overwhelmed. Students can also struggle with reading because the pronunciation of letters is different in each language. Second, choosing which language to teach in schools can be complicated.

Even though these are popular reasons that some people are against dual immersion schools, they are not all true. Studies show that students benefit from learning two languages at once. Children’s brains are perfect for learning languages. At first, children may confuse the two languages, but by the second or third year, students can easily identify and switch between the two languages. Furthermore, studies show that students with dual language skills are stronger readers than those students who only know how to read in their native language. Dual immersion students are better readers because once they know how to read in one language, they apply

those techniques, with slight changes, to the new language. This increases their foundation and knowledge of grammar, spelling, and reading rules.

Students that complete a dual immersion program are some of the smartest and most ambitious students in the country. The benefits of dual immersion schools are greater than the risks. Choosing the language to teach may present a problem, and there can be a lot of debate about it. However, just starting with one language is a step in the right direction. Once that language is included, administrators can decide if other languages would be more, or less, beneficial.

The United States can learn from countries that already have dual immersion programs. There are many countries that require students to study English and their native language from the very beginning of school. There are even countries in the United Kingdom that give students the opportunity to learn two and sometimes even three languages at the same time!

There is no reason why the United States can’t have more dual immersion schools. It would benefit the nation and future generations. The world is quickly becoming multilingual. This country needs to make sure they are not left behind!

1. The singer felt frustrated that he couldn’t remember the song.

2. He worked hard to memorize all the words so that he didn’t need to read the music.

3. He liked all the songs for the show, with one exception that he thought was bad.

4. The bad song was too complicated and hard to sing.

5. He felt ashamed that he couldn’t sing it very well.

6. He decided to sing a different song in another language because he was multilingual.

7. The only trouble with the new song was remembering the article for every noun.

Katrina: Good morning, John. How are you today?

John: Hi, Katrina. I’m good, but I am more frustrated than I’ve ever been in my life!

Katrina: Why is that?

John: I’m taking Spanish this semester, and I am struggling with the vocabulary right now.

Katrina: Oh, that’s not fun. Why do you think you’re struggling with it so much?

John: Because of the genders! Why does everything have to have a gender in Spanish? I don’t understand, and it doesn’t really make any sense to me. Spanish is so much harder than English. It’s more annoying, too.

Katrina: Really? I think English is the most difficult language to learn.

John: No way. English is easier. There are no genders to memorize for words.

Katrina: That’s true, but English is the language of exceptions. For every rule, there are hundreds of exceptions. You have to memorize all the exceptions. In Spanish, we might have genders, but there are very few exceptions for the gender rules.

John: What rules are there for the genders? They all seem to be random to me.

Katrina: In Spanish, words that end in “o” are masculine. Words that end in “a” are feminine. So, the word “car” in Spanish is “carro.” Since it ends in “o” it makes it masculine and you use the masculine article “el”, “el carro.” However, the word “house” in Spanish is “casa.” Since this one ends with an “a” it is feminine. With feminine words you use the feminine article “la”, “la casa.”

John: Wow, I didn’t know that. That will make learning Spanish less complicated. The gendered words are just strange to me.

Katrina: Most languages have genders for their vocabulary. French uses genders as well. Sometimes the genders are the same as Spanish and other romance languages. However, they don’t have the same rule. In French, the words don’t end in “o” or “a” like in Spanish. So, learning which words are feminine and masculine is trickier than in Spanish. It took me a while to learn them.

John: I didn’t know you know French. How did you learn the genders?

Katrina: Well, I don’t know French, yet. One of the ways I’m learning the genders is by learning the article along with the vocabulary word rather than just learning the vocabulary word. Instead of saying car is “voiture,” I always say “la voiture.” In French, “car” is feminine, but in Spanish it’s masculine. By always including the article, I always know if it is masculine or feminine.

John: That’s a great tip. What other suggestions do you have for learning a new language?

Katrina: The most important thing to remember is that if you never try, you’ll never learn. No one will speak a new language perfectly at first, so just speak! Don’t be ashamed or embarrassed. The quieter you are, the harder it’ll be to get better. Make mistakes and learn from them.

John: Thanks Katrina. I struggle with the genders in Spanish, but you’re right. I need to be more confident and just speak Spanish.

Katrina: Yes, exactly. Just be happy you’re not learning Zande. They use 4 different types of genders for their words!

John: That’s crazy! I’m glad English doesn’t have genders.

Katrina: Actually, English used to have genders, too. Most people don’t know that, but the English language did use genders in the past. They stopped using them around the 13th century.

John: Wow Katrina. You know a lot about different languages and the history of language.

Katrina: Yes, I do. One day, I hope to teach other languages to people. I think we should all be multilingual.

John: Well, you can always tutor me in Spanish.

Katrina: That would be fun.


A: Let’s go to the park.

B: You want to go now?

A: No, / later this afternoon / when it’s warm. / I want to play on the swings.

B: Nice! / I want to go down the slides!

2. The new movie comes out today, / but I won’t have time to watch it.

3. When I walk on the beach, / I feel the sand under my feet / and listen to the sound of the waves.

4. We don’t have grammar homework tonight, / so Hannah did some practice / from the reading book.

1. I want to travel to Mexico / in the winter.

2. Do you like vanilla / or do you like chocolate?

3. Turn off the heater / when you leave tonight.

4. Tomorrow will be a busy day / because we’re flying / all the way to Japan.

5. Michael never washes the dishes / or does his laundry / but he always expects his roommates / to clean up the apartment.

6. The intelligent young woman / asked him for the time / and which way she should go / to get to the busy administration building / so she could submit her request

unit 8

Dominic: Sociology is the study of humanity on a wider scale. Sociologists look at societies, families, and institutions rather than at individuals. A sociologist is concerned with helping communities and fixing current social issues in the world. On the other hand, psychologists are interested in helping individuals.

Yahvi: Wow, sociology sounds complicated. Which one do you think is more important?

Dominic: I think they are both important. I also feel like they need to work together because they study different areas.

Yahvi: What are you doing Dominic?

Dominic: Hey, Yahvi. I’m looking at different areas of study in behavioral science at the university.

Yahvi: Oh, that’s cool. I didn’t know you wanted to study behavioral science. Why did you choose that field?

Dominic: I love learning about people and why they do what they do. We are all so similar and so different in many ways. I also find it fascinating how unique the human species is when compared to other animals.

Yahvi: Hmm, ok. So, what are the areas of behavioral science you are trying to choose from?

Dominic: I’ve narrowed it down to psychology or sociology. I like both, but I’m trying to decide which one would be better for me.

Yahvi: Psychology is all about your feelings, right? I always thought psychology sounded interesting, but difficult.

Dominic: I think psychology is fascinating. It’s not just about feelings, but also about the brain. Psychology explores human behavior in connection with the brain. It tries to understand the reason behind why humans act and feel the way they do. There’s a lot we still don’t know about the human brain or why humans behave the way we do.

Yahvi: Really? I didn’t know that. I always thought it was just the guy who sits in a chair and asks you how you feel.

Dominic: Well, that’s just a small part of psychology. A psychologist does ask you about your feelings, but they are also trying to help you understand the “why” behind your actions and emotions. That person had to study certain parts of medical science, especially about how the brain works, in order to get their license and become a therapist.

Yahvi: They studied medical science? That’s amazing. I guess I don’t really know a lot about psychology. What about sociology?

Dominic: Sociology is the study of humanity on a wider scale. Sociologists look at societies, families, and institutions rather than at individuals. A sociologist is concerned with helping communities and fixing current social issues in the world. On the other hand, psychologists are interested in helping individuals.

Yahvi: Wow, sociology sounds complicated. Which one do you think is more important?

Dominic: I think they are both important. I also feel like they need to work together because they study different areas.

Yahvi: Ok. Tell me more about sociology. I don’t know a lot about it.

Dominic: Well, the study of sociology has many aspects. It deals with society and social standards. It studies how our behavior is shaped by cultural and societal structures. Sociologists focus on big things like love, war, race, gender, religion, the economy, and even migration. In sociology, you try to understand humanity’s behavior in groups. How do we interact with each other and why?

Yahvi: You make sociology sound more interesting than psychology. Do you think sociology is easier than psychology?

Dominic: I wouldn’t say it’s easier. But there are some major differences. First, psychologists must pass a test to get their license. Sociologists don’t need any kind of license at all. Because of that, it takes less time to become a sociologist. Another difference is that psychologists rely on facts learned through years of medical research. Meanwhile, sociologists need to understand social theories and public policies. That’s probably more difficult to work with because theories are harder to measure and can often change.

Yahvi: What jobs are available for each one?

Dominic: Psychologists usually work in health clinics, in counseling services, and even human resource departments. Sociologists work in the criminal justice system, legal services, public health and welfare organizations, or even in education.

Yahvi: Great! So, which do you think you want to study more?

Dominic: I’m still not sure. However, after explaining all of this, I think I might look into sociology a bit more.

Yahvi: Well, I think you’ll do great no matter what you choose.

Dominic: Thanks, Yahvi.

Good afternoon and welcome back to my channel where we ask questions about the world. Today, I want to ask a question that I find intriguing. What makes humans different from animals?

Ok, this might seem like an easy question to answer, but it isn’t. Let’s look at the scientific facts. Taxonomy is the classification of all species that exist on Earth. There are eight levels that we classify living organisms into: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. The farther down the list you go, the more similarities the organisms have to each other. This means that humans, cats, elephants, and even butterflies are all under the kingdom animalia. We are all considered animals.

However, when we go down the line to family, humans are classified as Hominidae. The family Hominidae includes great apes as well as humans. Great apes are gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees, and bonobos. It’s not until the genus level that humans and apes separate. Scientifically speaking, humans and apes are very closely related.

So, what exactly makes humans, human? What separates us from our closest relatives and all other animals in the Animal Kingdom?

This is a question that many scientists have tried to answer. Behavioral scientists continue to study gorillas even today to try and understand and answer this question. Many years ago, scientists believed that humans were different from animals because humans had the ability to use tools. However, they ended up discovering that many apes and monkeys know how to use tools to access food and other resources. Using tools was not a trait unique to humans. We are more advanced in our use of tools, but other species know how to use tools, too.

Next, scientists thought that what really made us special was language. We can speak. The problem with this opinion is that it doesn’t recognize that animals also have language. Their language is different from ours, and we have no way of understanding it, but communication is not only a human trait. We also have to remember that apes have learned American Sign Language. This means that apes have the ability to learn language the way humans do. Learning a human language is more complicated and limited for them, but they can learn. Considering this, language can’t be what separates humans from animals. So, what does separate us?

Another theory deals with psychology. Attachment theory is the idea that a baby forms a bond with their primary caregiver and then expands those bonds with the people they interact with. The theory in psychology is that the child forms the bond because of survival. The mother feeds the baby, the baby forms a bond with the provider of the food.

Why does this matter when we are talking about how animals are similar or different to humans? Well, a lot of people believe that animals don’t experience emotions the way humans do. They believe that emotions are a uniquely human trait. Do animals have emotions that match those of humans?

In one study in the 1950s, two scientists, Harry and Margret Harlow, conducted experiments on monkeys to test this theory. They raised Rhesus monkeys and separated the babies from their mothers. Then, they placed the babies in a cage with a blanket. The babies became very attached to the blankets. When they noticed this, they decided to create two artificial mothers for the baby monkeys. One was a wire mother, made of wires. The other was a cloth mother that was made from the blankets they seemed to be attached to. The wire mother was given a bottle for the babies to feed from, while the cloth mother didn’t have anything. What they discovered was that the baby monkeys preferred the cloth mother even though she didn’t have a feeder. The babies would attach to the soft mother and feed from the wire mother while holding on to the cloth mother. So, what does that mean? It means that the attachment wasn’t about survival. It was about emotions. This shows that animals are capable of emotions the way that humans are. So, what makes us different?

It’s a hard question to answer. I would say that one aspect that makes us different is that humans are the only species that will experiment on other animals so cruelly to try and understand human or animal behavior, like the experiment with the Rhesus monkeys.

Some people will say that human behavior is different from other animals, even apes. Human interaction and social connections aren’t typically seen in animals. However, a study on gorillas in the Congo is creating controversy on that topic, too. Gorillas seem to show similar social groups and social levels to humans. Maybe we aren’t as different as we think.

However, even though there are many similarities that humans have with animals, we are different. No other species has explored space, written books, and shared stories, or created mass destruction the way we have. What makes us different is both positive and negative in my opinion.

What do these differences mean? If we are a superior species, does that mean we have the responsibility of making the world better? Who decides what is better? Do animals ask themselves these questions? What do you guys think? Send me your opinions or send articles that add to this intriguing conversation. We’ll be back next week.

1. Mary had done her homework completely before Rachel left.

2. While Larry was zipping his jacket, Philip put on his nice scarf.

3. The big garden party was ending when new guests started dancing.

4. It was almost time to take care of the cat when it walked to the stairs with them.

unit 9

At exactly 3:05 pm last Thursday, June 5th, 2018 I walked out of the bank and saw a man riding a bike down the street. When he was about 10 feet away from me, he stopped and asked if I had seen two dogs. One was brown and about 1 and a half feet tall and the other one was white and was 2 feet tall. I said no and watched him ride away. About 3 minutes later, a police car drove past going about 60 miles per hour. Later that night, I saw on the 8 o’clock news that 24 dogs had been stolen from around the area by professional dog thieves. Had I seen one of them?

One of the most important aspects of a successful business is marketing. What is marketing? To put it simply, marketing is the promoting and selling of products. Researching and advertising are also part of marketing. Basically, marketing is getting people interested in your product or service.

The better you are at marketing, the higher chance you have at being successful. A lot of people often forget to consider marketing in business. They create a product or service and begin offering it and expect people to buy it. What’s the problem with this idea? How can someone buy what you’re selling if they don’t know about it? Marketing allows you to have a demand for the supply you plan to have. This is how you can be successful.

Good afternoon. My name is Ryan Thatcher, and I am here today to talk to you about marketing. Many of you are business students who want to be successful. The big question is, how can you be sure that you will be successful in your business?

One of the most important aspects of a successful business is marketing. What is marketing? To put it simply, marketing is promoting and selling products. Researching and advertising are also part of marketing. Basically, marketing is getting people interested in your product or service.

The better you are at marketing, the higher chance you have at being successful. A lot of people often forget to consider marketing in business. They create a product or service and begin offering it and expect people to buy it. What’s the problem with this idea? How can someone buy what you’re selling if they don’t know about it? Marketing allows you to have a demand for the supply you plan to have. This is how you can be successful.

For example, did you know that most customers use their phone to find information about businesses? That’s why social media is the number one method used by marketers. Also, since 2017, around half of all global website traffic was done on a phone. For this reason, 64% of website marketers recommend spending money and time to make your website work well on phones. If a business didn’t know this information, they might not be able to find the people who want their product. So today, you are going to learn about the six Ps of marketing.

To start, let’s talk about “Product.” The product or service you are offering is the most important part of your business. The product you are selling needs to meet certain qualifications before you decide to dedicate your time, money, energy, and life to it. Is the product you are selling something people will want to buy? Is it solving a problem, and is it doing a better job than other products that are similar? This is important because if your product isn’t better than what is already available, why would anyone buy it? Think about creating a service that is unique but desired. If you’re not sure whether people would buy your product, you can always survey people about their opinions.

Next, we need to consider the “Price” of your product. Charging too much in comparison to other products could mean that you don’t sell enough to be successful and continue your business. You also don’t want to charge too little because you could lose money. You have to consider how much it costs to make the product, promote it, and continue to produce more of it. However, you could decide to have promotions or discounts to attract more people to your product. This is a great way to get the word out about your product and gain more customers.

Our fourth part is “Place.” Where you sell your product is important to its success. If you try to sell a video game, for example, at a farmer’s market, but the people who go there aren’t interested in video games, you won’t be able to sell what you need. Make sure you understand where your customers are most likely to look for your product. This will make it easier for them to find the product and for you to sell it.

Now, “People” are going to be the focus of your success. This doesn’t only mean your customers. It also includes the people who are working for you, such as the people who make the product, the people who sell it, and especially the people who work in your customer service department. Customer service can be the downfall of any company. Your customers expect your customer service to be knowledgeable and friendly. Otherwise, it won’t matter how great your product is. They will choose to do business elsewhere. Take care of your people, so they can take care of your customers.

Then, we move on to “Process.” How are you going to send your product to your customer? In today’s world with online shopping, there are plenty of options to choose from. However, it isn’t just about the company you choose for shipping online orders. Your packaging could be a way to show your customers what your company stands for. Are you using environmentally friendly packaging? Are you trying to reduce the carbon footprint? You’d be surprised how many people are willing to pay a little more for a similar product that shows they care about the environment. In fact, customers are about four times more loyal to eco-friendly businesses.

Finally, our last step is “Physical Evidence.” This is how customers and future customers know that your product is real. Scammers are a serious problem, and with the internet, it is really easy to pretend to sell a product that doesn’t really exist. Make sure you have a way to prove that you are a legitimate company, and that the product customers buy will be received. Having a physical store can be great physical evidence. However, if you don’t have the revenue for that, a good, functional website will be enough. You can also send receipts or follow-up emails to show that you are a real company. This will also increase the chances of having returning customers.

All six Ps of marketing can help you be successful when you begin your journey in business. I hope you all found the information helpful. Are there any questions?

1. The Nike swoosh is a simple but easy to recognize logo.

2. The company wants people to be able to recognize its brand when they see the logo on products.

3. The company strategically developed a new product that people could use around the world to increase their number of customers.

4. The lower priced promotion of the product made a lot of people buy it.

5. The advertisement posters on the wall were so obvious that people could not ignore them.

6. The ads repeated the slogan, “Good for you, good for the earth,” across the top of the poster.

7. The company wanted to be more accommodating for those with disabilities by having more options for them.

Joseph: Hey, Ricardo.

Ricardo: Hey, Joseph. Did you see the commercials last night during the Super Bowl halftime show?

Joseph: Yes, I did. They are always amazing. Although, I hear that the companies who purchase the airtime for those commercials pay a lot of money. Do you really think it’s worth it?

Ricardo: Yeah, I think they are extremely smart to do it. I’m taking a marketing course, and we talked a little about the halftime commercials.

Joseph: I didn’t know you were taking a marketing course. What are you learning about?

Ricardo: We’ve been studying some of the companies that have had a lot of marketing success. We are trying to see what they did right. It can help us when we create our own business in the future. It’s a great class.

Joseph: Ok, cool. Marketing is like promoting a product, right?

Ricardo: Yes, but it’s a lot more complicated than just promotion.

Joseph: Tell me about it. What are some of the companies that have good marketing?

Ricardo: One of the ones we recently talked about is Red Bull.

Joseph: Oh yeah. The energy drink that gives you wings.

Ricardo: Yes, exactly. See, Red Bull has done an incredible job at marketing their product. Did you know they are an Austrian company?

Joseph: What? No way. I thought they were an American company.

Ricardo: That’s because they have strategically marketed themselves globally. They host many sports events around the world. Even though their product is sold internationally, their ability to make people feel like it’s a local brand helps them be successful. They’ve also been very consistent with their brand and packaging. That’s important because people easily recognize the logo and the product no matter where they are.

Joseph: That’s very true. What other companies did you learn about?

Ricardo: Ok, if you are travelling somewhere with your family and need a place to stay, where would you go to find a place?

Joseph: I hate staying at hotels when I travel with my family because we need more than one room. So, I would say I’d look for an Airbnb.

Ricardo: Perfect. Airbnb is another example of successful marketing. A lot of people are choosing to stay at Airbnb’s rather than staying at hotels. They are usually more accommodating for families and often cheaper. Their current “Made possible by hosts” commercials are a large part of their success. Have you seen any of those commercials?

Joseph: Yes, they’re one of the reasons I love Airbnb. There are so many different kinds of places to stay.

Ricardo: That’s the kind of marketing that makes them successful. They know how to present their product to their audience, and that allows them to get more customers. Airbnb is a pretty young company. It started in 2008, but people already prefer it to hotels.

Joseph: This is so interesting.

Ricardo: Another great example, and one of my favorites, is Dunkin’ Donuts.

Joseph: “America runs on Dunkin’.” That’s their slogan, right?

Ricardo: Yes, a perfect slogan. Dunkin’ Donuts has come a long way from when they first started. They have stores in over 30 countries! They are also incredible at understanding what their customers want. A Dunkin’ Donuts in America looks different from the ones in China or Lebanon. They sell the sweet treats that would be most successful in those areas. They keep their original values while making sure they give the people what they want.

Joseph: Are there more companies that have great success like that?

Ricardo: Oh, yes. Domino’s, Nike, World Wildlife Fund, and Spotify are a few others. Then you have your obvious companies like McDonald’s and Coca-Cola.

Joseph: Definitely. McDonald’s and Coca-Cola are definitely known around the world. In fact, we should go get some now and you can keep telling me about this marketing class.

Ricardo: *laughs* Ok, let’s do it.

1. What’s up?

2. Good afternoon.

3. My name is James Owens.

4. My name is Andrew Adams.

5. You won an award for admirable ethics.

6. That’s an impressive achievement.

7. We opened our first advertising office in Indiana.

8. We worked over a decade on this attempt.

9. Your effort paid off.

10. Your invention has become extremely effective.

unit 10

I don’t think there is other life in the universe because wouldn’t we have found something by now? I mean, we’re not even looking for intelligent life, just living organisms and we still haven’t found anything. How many stars and planets have we searched? No water, no organisms, no radio signals, nothing. Also, there are so many planets out there that are too close to a star so they’re too hot, or too far from a star so they’re too cold. It seems really hard to get the ideal distance that could support life. It just doesn’t seem likely to me that there is life out there.

People have always been curious about outer space and what they might find in the universe. Space exploration began in the late 1950s. One of the most important moments in space exploration was the invention of the Hubble Space Telescope.

The Hubble Space Telescope started being developed in the 1940s. However, the telescope wasn’t launched into the earth’s orbit until April of 1990. NASA engineers and the European Space Agency collaborated to create this incredible technology. The Hubble Space Telescope changed space exploration and continues to give us more understanding of what exists outside of our planet.

The telescope was named after Edwin Hubble, a famous astronomer. In the early 1900’s, Hubble began his study of stars, planets, and other aspects of outer space. During this time, the available telescopes were limited in their ability to see into the universe. In fact, most people believed that our galaxy was the entire universe.

Hubble was working with the Hooker, the most advanced telescope at the time, when he noticed something about the Andromeda Nebula. The Andromeda Nebula was thought to be a star cluster within our galaxy. However, Hubble realized he could see individual stars like in our own galaxy. This discovery led him to believe that the Andromeda was actually a separate galaxy.

After this, Hubble began discovering more galaxies in the universe. This information radically changed space exploration. Hubble’s contribution to what we know about the universe was astounding. He created a system that classified galaxies that is still used today in an updated form. Even more impressive was Hubble’s creation of the Hubble Constant. This is the measurement of how the universe is expanding. Hubble was able to measure and calculate at what speed the galaxies are moving away from each other. Before this, the idea that the universe was expanding was new. Hubble’s confirmation of this theory helped pave the way for what we know as the Big Bang Theory, which is a theory about how the universe began.

Though Hubble did not work on the creation of the Hubble telescope, it was named in his honor. His discoveries made it possible to continue the exploration of space. The Hubble Telescope attracts many astronomers, who must request permission to use the telescope and are granted only a year to work with it.

The Hubble telescope has been used in over 1.5 million discoveries about our galaxy and the universe. The images astronomers get from the telescope have been essential to understanding the universe on a deeper level. It also helps us understand the history of our universe because the images we see are of how space looked light years ago. Some of the most important discoveries the Hubble Telescope helped make include the age of the universe, discovering moons on other planets, the speed at which the universe is expanding, black holes at the center of galaxies, and gaining a better understanding of other mysteries of the universe.

Incredibly, in 2015 the Hubble Telescope was able to observe an exploding star. The images Hubble captures are magnificent. They seem like something out of a science fiction film. However, the Hubble telescope requires upgrades to its technology in order to continue improving its functions and capabilities. To upgrade Hubble, astronauts must travel into space and replace old telescope parts with new parts. Hubble has been upgraded a total of five times. The Hubble Telescope is still in orbit today, continuing to help us in our mission to learn all that we can about space.

Camilo: Hey Jenna, did you watch the documentary about Mars yesterday?

Jenna: Hey Camilo. No, I didn’t get a chance to watch it. Did you watch it?

Camilo: Yes, it was incredible. There is so much information about Mars and why we explore it. I enjoyed watching it so much that I started researching the future of Mars exploration. You wouldn’t believe what they are planning!

Jenna: What did the documentary talk about?

Camilo: The documentary talked about understanding the reasons we need to explore Mars. We’ve been exploring Mars since the 1960s. At first, we were only able to get close to the planet and take pictures. In 1971, the USSR was the first to successfully land a rover on the surface of Mars.

Jenna: Really? I didn’t know Russia was the first one to land something on Mars. I always assumed it was the USA.

Camilo: Most people believe that. Even though the Mars 3 Lander made it to the surface, it was only able to transmit data for 20 seconds before it failed.

Jenna: That’s a short amount of time.

Camilo: The technology was new, and they were learning how Mars’s atmosphere worked. It was normal for the time to be short. Don’t worry. They learned from their mistakes over the years. In 1973, the USSR was able to launch four more spacecraft trying to land on Mars. Only one, the Mars 6, was able to land on Mars again. Space exploration isn’t easy.

Jenna: One out of four doesn’t seem too successful. Not to mention, all four were from the USSR? When did the USA join the exploration?

Camilo: The US was able to launch a spacecraft that came close to Mars in 1965. The first US spacecraft to land on Mars wasn’t until 1976, but it was considered the first successful landing. The spacecraft was able to transmit information for almost four years.

Jenna: Is that the longest a spacecraft has lasted on Mars?

Camilo: No, not at all. In 2003, the US launched the Opportunity Rover. It landed on Mars and began transmitting information back to us in 2004. The rover lasted for fifteen years! The last time it communicated with Earth was June of 2018. We learned so much from what the Opportunity Rover showed us.

Jenna: Fifteen years of transmission is definitely a lot more than 20 seconds from the first landing. What have we learned from the Opportunity Rover mission?

Camilo: NASA learned that Mars used to have areas of wet land. What this means is the planet must have had water at some point in the past.

Jenna: Why is that important?

Camilo: It means that Mars was habitable before. The reason that matters is because NASA is hoping to land the first humans on Mars within the next 10 years.

Jenna: Do you think that’s possible?

Camilo: Well, after the documentary, I looked into NASA’s plans. I think it’s possible for us to land humans on Mars, but I don’t know if I agree that it will happen in the next decade.

Jenna: How does NASA plan to make it happen?

Camilo: There are lots of projects that are working on the biggest challenge for life on Mars. Mars doesn’t have oxygen the way that Earth does. The atmosphere is different, and we need oxygen to live. NASA is experimenting with something called MOXIE. Basically, it’s a way of extracting oxygen from the atmosphere, and through electrolysis, MOXIE produces more oxygen. Right now, it’s only enough for a human to breathe for 10 to 15 minutes. Their hope is to increase the amount to support life on Mars. I don’t know how they plan to do that. Another project is to use Martian soil to create human habitats that could temporarily be used to stay on Mars.

Jenna: That sounds like a lot of work. It will be interesting to see how NASA manages to make trips to Mars a possibility. Do you know how long the trip to Mars would take?

Camilo: With our current technology, it would be around three months to get to Mars but nine months to get back to Earth after. That could change as we continue to develop our space technology.

Jenna: Camilo, you should be an astronaut.

Camilo: *laughs* Oh no. I love learning about this information, but I don’t like the idea of actually going out into space. Earth is a perfect home.

Jenna: I agree. Let me know if you hear about any new developments in a trip to Mars.

Camilo: Ok, I will.

1. Could you (coul-joo) help Ben?

2. I’m baking cookies (bakin-kookies).

3. You can pet camels or sand puppies (san-puppies).

4. Did you (di-joo) eat carrots?

5. Don’t you (don-choo) face time your dad today?

6. I got you (go-choo) a pink gift.